Accepted abstracts – 2017 Conference

Abstract # 1

The ‘emergent’ global killer without an agent: A critical discourse analysis of global health Non-Communicable Disease Responses

Morris DC Komakech

York University, Toronto

Faculty of Health Sciences, Health Policy and Management

Global concerns over high mortality burden of Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) focuses on productivity and development. According to the narrative, NCDs are a major factor of productivity that could undermine anti-poverty investments. However, the NCD dominant narrative of individualization, risk factors analysis, and lifestyle changes contradicts and conceals the roles of multinational corporations in high NCD incidence and the underdevelopment of LMICs.

Using critical discourse analysis as a tool, and applying it within global political economy framework, we critically analyze the complex nature of the Non-Communicable Disease Alliance (NCDA) and its partnerships. We conducted content analysis of the NCDA Strategic Plan (2016- 2020) and World Health Organization’s global plan for the prevention and control of NCDs (2013-2020) for word or phrase references to corporations’ roles and corporate behaviors that expose populations to harmful products. These documents are the blueprints of global health response to the global NCDs crisis.

We confirmed that both the NCDA and WHO (a) are influenced by multinational corporations that manufacture and distribute alcohol, pharmaceuticals, medical technologies, ultra-processed foods and sweetened beverages; (b) use concealment and legitimation in discourse formulation to obscure the role of multinational corporations in NCD causation debate; and (c) the NCD dominant narratives promote corporatist interests in emerging markets. The dominant narrative of individualization, medicalization, and lifestyle changes influence both macro and micro-level health policies on NCDs. Consequently, health interventions in LMICs fail to address structural inequalities and inequities that cause NCDs and, instead, perpetuate them. The LMICs need to rethink their alignment to the “development” agenda formulated and imposed by global North.

Keywords: Noncommunicable Diseases, Legitimation, Concealment, M.ultinational Corporations, Discourse Analysis, Health Policy, Structural inequalities

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Abstract # 2

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Its Associated Risk Factors in Pregnant Women at Selected Health Facilities in Kigali City, Rwanda

1Jean Baptsite Niyibizi*, 2Florien Safari, 3Jean Bosco Ahishakiye, 4Jean Bosco Habimana, 5Herbert Mapira and 6Ngule Chrispus Mutuku

1Pan African University Institute of Sciences, Technology and Innovation, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Nyagatare Hospital, Nyagatare, Rwanda; 3Rwinkwavu Hospital, Kayonza, Rwanda; 4Gisenyi Hospital, Rubavu, Rwanda; 5College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; 6Center for Traditional Medicine and Drugs Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

*Corresponding Author: niyibizi3@gmail.com

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication of pregnancy that causes chronic hypertension, increased rate of cesarean delivery, fetal mortality and morbidity. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of GDM in pregnant women attending Kimironko, Kicukiro and Muhima Health Centers. Specific objectives were to determine the blood glucose during the second trimester in pregnant women aged between 21 and 45 years, to find out the frequencies of pregnant women presenting with GDM according to age, and to assess risk factors associated with GDM.

A cross-sectional study was carried out at Kimironko, Kicukiro and Muhima Health centers using sample size of 96 pregnant women. Blood glucose levels were measured using glucose oxidase method with glucometer. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.

Out of 96 pregnant women who participated in the study, 8.3% were found to have GDM with the mean ±2SD of 194.12 ± 25.53 mg/dl of their blood glucose results. The highest proportion of GDM was revealed in pregnant women aged between 26-30 years, representing a frequency of 5.2% whereas 2.1% of GDM was reflected in women aged between 21-25 years. The lowest proportion of GDM fell in age group of 31- 35 years contributing to 1% of the total GDM. There were no cases of GDM in pregnant women in the 36-40 or 41-45 age groups. The mean ±2SD of participant’s age groups was 27.12 ± 5.01 years. In addition, while obesity did not show to be associated with GDM, age and family history were found to be risk factors of GDM.

The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of GDM was 8.3% and the most affected pregnant women were in the age group of 26-30 years.

Key Words: Gestational diabetes mellitus; risk factors; pregnant women; prevalence; Rwanda.

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Abstract # 3

 HPV DNA Testing and Pap Smear Cytology Co-Testing as a “Test of Cure” in Patients Previously Treated for Cervical Lesions by LEEP at Kenyatta National Hospital

 1R. Chibvongodze*, 2C. Nyirakanani, 3 J.A Ojwang, 4 O.M Mutuku, 5 J.R. Ndung’u                        and 4 C.M. Kyama

 1 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology and Reproductive Health Department, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

2 Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gitwe, Nyanza , Rwanda.

3 Faculty of Health Sciences, Egerton University, Egerton , Kenya.

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.

5 Department of Human Pathology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

 * Corresponding Author: rayscientist@gmail.com

 Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is a pre-requisite for the development of the majority (99.7%) of precancerous cervical lesions. Treatment of cervical precancerous lesions reduces the risk of invasive cervical cancer by 90%; however treated women still have five times the risk of invasive cancer compared to women who have always had a normal Pap smear, thus, special follow-up measures are critical to reduce these risks.

 Currently, the follow-up protocol at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) involves screening with Pap smears only, which have their own limitations such as subjectivity in their interpretation. The incorporation of high-risk HPV genotype testing in addition to Pap smear cytology testing is the approach with the most potential to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of screening in this group of women.

 To achieve the objective of determining the utility of co-testing by conventional Pap smear and HPV testing as a ‘test of cure’ in patients previously treated for cervical lesions by LEEP at KNH, a cross sectional descriptive study was designed. The setting was KNAT and the Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI)’s molecular laboratory.

The subjects were women on follow-up for cervical lesions post-LEEP treatment.

 Out of the 25 participants, 22(88%) had a report of Negative for Intraepithelial Lesion or Malignancy (NILM) while 3(12%) had a report of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (≥ASCUS), 16 (64%) were positive for HPV. HPV-56 was the commonest HPV-subtype detected in 11 patients (41%). The Cohen’s Kappa correlation between Pap smear and HPV DNA test was not statistically significant: k=0.143, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17 to 0.46, p=0.166. There was no statistically significant association between HIV status and pap smear findings post Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP), X²=0.711, p=0.399.

 We conclude that co-testing with HPV DNA testing and Pap smear is a useful approach to stratify women with no cytological abnormalities according to their risk of residual disease.

 Key Words: HPV DNA testing; PAP Smear; Cervical lesions; Invasive cancer; Kenya; Rwanda.

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Abstract # 4

Prevalence of Malaria Parasites and Vector Species Abundance in Huye District, Southern Rwanda

1,3Chantal Nyirakanani*, 1Moses Masika, 1Dustan Mukoko and 2Kato J Njunwa

1University of Nairobi, 2University of Rwanda, 3Catholic University of Rwanda

* Corresponding Author: chantoska@gmail.com

Malaria is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa including Rwanda. Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species but information on species distribution in Rwanda is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and vector species abundance in Rukira cell, Huye district, Rwanda.

A total of 222 children under five years randomly selected from 13 villages were examined. Data on malaria vectors and risk factors were collected. Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by light traps and Pyrethrum Spray Catch, and outdoors by light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Screening for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources was achieved by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult stages which were identified morphologically.

  1. falciparum infection was detected by microscopy in 12% of children. Age and use of net was associated with malaria infection. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Others were Anopheles funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculpalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The human blood index was 0.509 while Sporozoite rate was 1.9%. 661 Anopheles larvae were collected from 22 larval habitats including An. gambiae s.l (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%.

We conclude that Plasmodium falciparum infection is high among children under five in Rukira cell. Children should be protected from mosquito bites by ensuring that they sleep under insecticide-treated nets. The dominant malaria vector was Anopheles gambiae sensu lato however secondary vectors may also play a role. Indoor residual spray and larval control should be done in the area to reduce malaria transmission.

Key Words: Malaria parasites prevalence; vector species; prevalence; Southern Rwanda.

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Abstract # 5

Chemical Synthesis, Efficacy and Safety of Anti-Malarial Hybrid Drug Comprising of Sarcosine and Aniline Pharmacophores as Scaffolds

1Jean Baptsite Niyibizi*, 2Joseph Ng’ang’a, 3Peter Kirira, 4Francis Kimani

1Pan African University Institute of Sciences, Technology and Innovation, Nairobi, Kenya.

2Jomo Kentyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.

3Mount Kenya University, Nairobi, Kenya.

4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

* Corresponding Author: niyibizi3@gmail.com

malaria is a disease caused by protozoan plasmodium. The main objective of this study was to synthesize, determine the efficacy and safety of an antiplasmodial hybrid drug comprising of sarcosine and aniline derivative for management of plasmpodial infections. The sarcosine-aniline hybrid was synthesized by coupling sarcosine and 3-Chloro-4-(4-chlorophenoxy) aniline. These pharmacophores were selected based on in silico studies that showed that they can bind protein ligands of plasmodium. The hybrid drug was synthesized by adding thionyl chloride to sarcosine in order to form acylchloride, which was then added to aniline to form sarcosine-aniline hybrid.

The IC50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid was 44.80 ± 4.70 ng/ml compared to that of aniline which was 22.86 ± 1.26 ng/ml. The IC50 of control drugs were 2.63 ± 0.38 ng/ml, 5.69 ± 0.39 ng/ml for artesunate and chloroquine, respectively. There was a significant difference between IC50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid and aniline derivative (P<0.05). There was also a significant difference between sarcosine-aniline hybrid and standard drugs used to treat malaria including artesunate and chloroquine (P<0.05). The ED50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid ; drug was 6.49mg/kg compared to that of aniline which was 3.61mg/kg. The ED50 of control drugs were 3.56mg/kg, 2.94mg/kg and 1.78 mg/kg for artesunate-aniline hybrid, artesunate and chloroquine, respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between ED50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid and both controls such as aniline derivative, artesunate, artesunate-aniline hybrid and chloroquine.

Cytotoxicity results revealed that sarcosine-aniline hybrid was safe to vero cells with CC50 of 50.18±3.53µg/ml, whereas the CC50 of artesunate, chloroquine and doxorubicin were 19.69±3.26, 57.96±3.85 and 1.96 ± 0.59 µg/ml, respectively. Sarcosine-aniline hybrid was significantly less toxic compared to artesunate, chloroquine and doxorubicin (P<0.05). Sarcosine-aniline hybrid was also safe to mice, as no mouse died after administering them with 2000mg/kg of hybrid drug for 14 days.

Key Words: Anti-malarial drug; chemical synthesis; efficacy; safety; pharmacphores; cytotoxicity; Kenya.

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Abstract # 6

In silico repositioning using target-similarity search identifies approved drugs that have in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum

*Reagan M. Mogire5*, Hoseah M. Akala4, Rosaline W. Macharia5 , Dennis W Juma4, Agnes C Cheruiyot4, Ben Andagalu4, Matthew L. Brown4, Hans A. Elshemy1, Steven G. Nyanjom2

1Cairo University, 2 JKUAT, 3 Pan African University Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation, Nairobi, Kenya, 4USAMRD-K, 5 Pan African University

*Corresponding author – reaganmoseti@gmail.com

 Recent reports on artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia warrant urgent discovery of novel drugs for treatment of malaria. Search for new chemical entities often fails at safety and toxicity stages of drug development. Drug repositioning offers an alternative strategy where drugs that have already been approved for other diseases and conditions are used to treat malaria and other diseases. This study screened approved drugs for antimalarial activity using an in silico chemogenomics approach prior to in-vitro verification. 

All the Plasmodium falciparum proteins sequences available at NCBI RefSeq were used to perform a similarity search between these proteins and putative target proteins of approved drugs in Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH 4.0 databases. Drugability indices of the potential drug targets were obtained from TDR targets database. Functional residues of the drug targets were determined using ConSurf server which were used to fine tune the similarity search. A literature search at PubMed and Google Scholar identified drugs that have been previously been tested against malaria, these were excluded from further analysis. Finally, drug susceptibility assays using SYBR Green method was done to validate the antimalarial activity of the untested drugs.

 This study predicted 133 approved drugs could target 28 P. falciparum proteins. Published literature showed 99 of these drugs have been tested against malaria, most of which have antimalarial activity. A representative group of 10 of the 34 untested drugs were screened using in vitro drugs susceptibility tests and 8 out of the 10 showed antimalarial activity with IC50 values below 100 µM.

 We conclude that these results show that target similarity can been used to correctly identify approved drugs with antimalarial activity, validating it as a viable method for repositioning drugs for antimalarial use.

Key words: Drug repositioning; target similarity search; antimalarial activity; in silico chemogenomics.

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Abstract # 7

In silico use of related sequences to optimize selection of primers and restriction enzymes for molecular markers

*Reagan Moseti Mogire2, Rosaline Macharia3, Henry Kissinger1, Joel Bargul, Steven Ger Nyanjom1

1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

2Pan African University Institute of Science,

3University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

*Corresponding Author

Molecular markers are used extensively for genetic analysis in medical research. One major challenge about their use is optimizing them for a particular sequence to meet a particular objective. This is worse if the target nucleic acid sequence is unknown, which is often the case in Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Typically, optimization of the choice of the primer sequence in RAPD involves repeating the technique with different primers till those that give the best results are found, which is quite costly. This study established in silico how sequences that have varying levels of phylogenetic relatedness can be used to predict the outcome of an amplification. In vitro based markers work by either amplification of particular nucleic acid segments using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or by restriction digestion which both depend on enzymes that recognize particular “DNA words” in nucleic acids.

R software was used to search all the possible 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 letter DNA words in a group of prokaryotic or eukaryotic genomic sequences that had varying level of similarity. Random sequences were included as controls. Afterwards, multiple regression was used to determine correlation in the occurrence of these DNA words across the sequences.

It was found that there was positive correlation between sequences, with the ones that are closely related having the strongest correlation of up to 0.99 compared to those that have low similarity between them having a correlation as low as 0.4. Correlation decreased with length of the DNA words. The level of correlation of occurrence of DNA words is directly proportional to the level of similarity between the sequences.

We conclude that sequences that are 50% similar could give a correlation of above 0.7. This gives a statistical basis for using related sequences to optimize selection of restriction enzymes and PCR primers.

Key words: Optimization; selection of primers and restriction enzymes; molecular markers; random amplified polymorphic DNA; polymerase chain reaction; regression analysis; correlations.

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 Abstract # 8

Morphological Characterization of Yellow Passion Fruits in Mbeere, Embu County, Kenya

 1Mwirigi Peter*, 2Maina Mwangi and 3Joseph Gweyi-Onyango

Department of Agriculture Science Technology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya

*Corresponding author email: mwirigip@gmail.com

 Yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) has emerged as an important high-value horticultural crop in Kenya and has gained wide adoption in Embu County due to its apparent adaptation to the hot arid conditions and a ready market for the fruit. The main objective of this study was to characterize yellow passion cultivars grown by farmers using morphological traits. Fifty nine cultivars grown in different farmers’ orchards were sampled, and 10 morphological variables measured on these accessions were subjected to multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering criterion. The results indicate that scores on the first principal component (PC-1) which accounted for 19.9% of the total variation were highly correlated (correlation coefficient >0.3) to characters related to twining direction, leaf color and leaf density. PC-2 which explained 13.7% of the total variation was highly associated with twinning direction, fruit color and maturity period of the passion. PC-3 explained 13.07% of the variation and was mainly correlated to maturity period of the passion.

Correlation among characters shows four main clusters with the first cluster comprising of traits associated with fruit color, maturity period, shape of the fruit and source of the planting material; the second cluster is associated with the twining direction; the third cluster with leaf density and leaf color while the fourth cluster is associated with number of vines per plant, stem color and yield per plant. The cluster analysis separated the fifty nine accessions as different genotypes with Euclidean similarity distance ranging from 0.99 to 0.08. At 0.92 level of similarity, agglomerative hierarchical clustering Dendogram indicates that almost all the 59 accessions were distinct from each other while at 0.48 level, half of the accessions were similar to each other. The pruned Dendogram at similarity distance of 0.05 identified four main clusters 1, 2, 3 and 4 according to the local names and the major morphological characters associated with them.

This study has shown that despite the large number of cultivars, there is not significant variability since only four distinct clusters could be identified. This can be attributed to the fact that the majority of the seedlings are sourced from once source which mainly propagates the KPF3, KPF4 and KPF12 varieties. Nevertheless, this information can be used to screen for specific cultivars or for general genetic improvement and design of conservation programs. However, there is a need for further studies using molecular and other confirmatory techniques.

Key words: Characterization, Principal Component Analysis, Yellow Passion, Cluster analysis

 ABOUT THE AUTHORS

 Peter MWAIRIGI is a Senior Research Administrator and a PhD student at Kenyatta University. He Peter has wide experience in plant biotechnology and has keen interest in tissue culture propagation, agronomy and plant conservation.

 Maina MWANGI, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer and Director of Research Support at Kenyatta University. He has wide experience in plant pathology with keen interest in ecology of disease transmission and plant abiotic interactions.

 Joseph GWEYI, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer at Kenyatta University and has wide experience in crop nutrition with specific interest in mechanisms of nitrogen assimilation.

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Abstract # 9

Social Network Analysis of Aquaculture Projects on Provisioning Services Enhancement of Peatland Forest Ecosystem in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

1Francisca Kilonzi*, 1Takahiro Ota, 2Kazuhiko Moji, 3Aswin Usup

1School of Fisheries & Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University; 2School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University.;3University of Parangkaraya, Faculty of Agriculture.

* Corresponding Author: franciscakarem@gmail.com

Improper implementation of peatland forest activities has altered the forest ecosystem, resulting to near extinct or degradation of the peatland forest and its biodiversity. To salvage the endangered peatland forest, the government of Indonesia set regulations imposing strict rules on peatland forests. These regulations banned the commercial or large scale use of forest timber products leading to permanent closure of all timber related companies. The loss of jobs by the people who benefited directly or indirectly from the companies was the major consequence. In return, the people focused on ecosystem services (ES) use for home consumption. Fish catch from the natural ponds in the forest recorded the highest caught provisioning service by the riparian communities’ leadings to overfishing.

This research focuses on stakeholder attribute analysis for successful management of the aquaculture projects to ensure enhancement of provisioning services (fish) in the streams, ponds and rivers in the peat forest by providing an alternative source of fish to the community in a case study of Hampangen village, central Kalimantan in Indonesia.

The exclusive features in our analysis show that the income of the stakeholders or their educational level do not necessarily influence their roles and position in the leadership network nor do they determine the ES usage from the forest. This research challenges the mainstream understanding on stakeholders’ selection based on educational background or income levels.  From our studies, we propose stakeholder selection based on social network attributes for a successful group or communal project management.

 Table 1. Analysis Stakeholder Betweenness Core and Periphery and the ES use

 

Stakeholder/

Actor

Fish ES Use Monthly Income Betweenness Core/Periphery
MPFG

L2

 

Monthly.

 

150 USD

 

3.900

 

Core

L4 Weekly 100 USD 3.433 Periphery
M3 Monthly 140 USD 0.450 Periphery
M5 Monthly 300 USD 1.650 Periphery
M6 Daily 150 USD 0.950 Core
HIFG.

L2

 

Weekly

 

300 USD

 

3.815

 

Core

L3 Daily 210 USD 1.833 Core

 

Key words: Social network analysis; ecosystem services; aquaculture; Indonesia.

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Abstract # 10

Effects of Vitamin D Status on the Evolvement of Non-Communicable Oral Diseases

1*Julienne Murererehe, 1Anne-Marie Uwitonze, 1Peace Uwambaye, 1Agnes Gatarayiha, 1M. Shawkat Razzaque

 1University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Dentistry, Kigali, Rwanda

Corresponding author: jmurererehe@yahoo.com

Normal humans of all ages have the innate ability to produce vitamin D following sunlight exposure. Inadequate vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of diseases, including oral diseases. Insufficient sunlight exposure may accelerate some of these diseases, possibly by impairing vitamin D synthesis. In this presentation, we will briefly discuss the possible role of vitamin D on the genesis of various oral diseases. We will also explain the potential benefits of safe sunlight exposure on oral health. The beneficial effects of vitamin D on oral health are not only limited to its direct effects on the tooth mineralization, but are also exerted through the anti-inflammatory functions and the ability to stimulate the production of anti-microbial peptides. Inadequate vitamin D status in the body can induce dentin and enamel defects during tooth development, and may also increase the incidence of dental caries. An association between vitamin D levels and evolvement of gingivitis is also noted. Maintaining disease free oral health is important, as a bidirectional association between periodontal diseases and various systemic diseases are noted in different non-communicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, preterm low-birth weight infant and cardiovascular diseases. Such bidirectional association might be related to low vitamin D activities. From the available information, it is apparent that safe sunlight exposure should be encouraged, when available, to maintain optimal vitamin D levels to have a healthy oral function. Of particular importance, sunlight provides more than 80% of required vitamin D to the human body.

 Keywords: Non-communicable oral diseases; Vitamin D; Sunlight; Oral health; Systemic diseases.

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Abstract # 11

Immune-Mediated Cardiovascular Disease Occurrence: The Potential to Harness Immunomodulating Treatments as Therapeutic Interventions Aimed at Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk

*Rosebella A. Iseme1,2, Mark Mcevoy2,3, Brian Kelly2,4, Linda Agnew5, Frederick K. Walker2,6,7, Christopher Oldmeadow2,3, John Attia2,3,8 and Michael Boyle2,8

1School of Public Health, Department of Population and Reproductive Health, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya, P.O. Box,

2School of Medicine & Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

3Hunter Medical Research Institute, Kookaburra Circuit, New Lambton Heights, NSW, 2305, Australia.

4Centre for Brain and Mental Health Research, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

(e) Brain Behaviour Research Group, School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia

6Laboratory of Affective Neuroscience, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

7University of Newcastle, Medical Sciences MS413, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia

8Department of General Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, NSW, Australia.

Corresponding Author Email: iseme.rosebella@ku.ac.ke

RESEARCH QUESTION:

Is immune dysfunction a mediator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease occurrence?

HYPOTHESIS:

Atherosclerosis and its ensuing heart conditions are immunologically based disorders.

BACKGROUND

Atherosclerotic related cardiovascular disease (AS related CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide (1). There are repeated observations of an exaggerated and premature atherogenic process amongst autoimmune disease sufferers that is not entirely explained by traditional risk factors (2, 3). It is unclear whether the latter observation is due to the ensuing treatments or the autoimmune process itself.

METHODOLOGY

We systematically reviewed literature across five electronic databases up to June 2016, to establish the association between autoantibodies and atherosclerosis (4). We targeted analytical studies examining an association between autoantibodies and AS related CVD outcomes using adult samples without clinical autoimmune disease. Quality analysis was carried out using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Quality Assessment Tool. Studies were pooled using random effects models.

RESULTS

We identified 51 primary articles. Results showed that raised levels of anti-cardiolipin Immunoglobulin (Ig) G (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.49), anti-oxidised low density lipoprotein IgG (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.11 – 1.41), unspecified anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (OR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.49 – 6.41) and anti-human heat shock protein 60 IgA (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15 – 2.16) increased the risk of AS related CVD outcomes. Alternatively, anti phosphorylcholine IgM (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.14 – 1.50) and anti-malondialdehyde low density lipoprotein IgM (OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71 – 0.93) conferred protection against CVD.

DISCUSSION AND APPLICATIONS

The association between autoantibodies and AS related CVD outcomes amongst a non-clinical autoimmune sample strengthens the case for an immune mediated atherogenic process in its own right (3). In the future, we may benefit from the use of autoantibodies as markers of disease risk whilst modulation of immune responses using existing treatments may be a promising new approach for disease management.

CONCLUSIONS

Autoantibodies may play an important role as mediators of AS related CVD independent of therapeutic treatments.

Key Words: Immune dysfunction; Autoantibodies; Cardiovascular disease (CVD); Atherosclerosis (AS); Myocardial infarction (MI); Stroke; Risk prediction

 

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Abstract # 12

 Factors Affecting Regeneration Potential of Selected Kenyan Cassava Genotypes using In vitro Somatic Embryogenesis

Ngugi Mathew Piero1*, Oduor Richard Okoth1, Wanyonyi Christine Nakhumicha1

Plant Transformation Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

*Corresponding Author:  piero.mathew@ku.ac.ke

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a valuable source of calories in countries where malnutrition is widely spread. Despite its many uses as food, feed and in industries, it’s constrained by biotic and abiotic stresses. Attempts to overcome challenges in cassava production by conventional breeding have been met with limited success. The application of genetic transformation to introduce agronomically useful traits would greatly compliment classical breeding approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the regenerability of selected Kenya cassava genotypes. Three genotypes (Ex-ndolo, Karibuni and Shibe) were collected from coastal and eastern agroecological zone based on their traits which are high yielding and early maturity and maintained at the Kenyatta University Plant Transformation Laboratory glasshouse. Clean plant materials were established in vitro and maintained on media containing Murashige and Skoog salts with vitamins, (30g/l sucrose and 3.0g/l gelrite) and used as source of explants. Picloram and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid were used to induce somatic embryos using leaf and stem explants under light and dark photo regimes. The differences in frequencies of somatic embryogenesis ranged between 31.95-81.48% for leaf explants and 19.65-42.83% for stem explants for all four concentrations under study while varying the photoperiod. Embryogenic calli was matured on media supplemented with different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine, α-naphthaleneacetic acid and gibberellic acid before being transferred to regeneration media. Shoot development from somatic embryos had significant differences between genotypes. Ex-Ndolo was highly responsive to the maturation media and formed shoots when the embryos originated from leaf explants for both 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and picloram were matured. Root induction from shoots was relatively low, ranging between 10%-26%. Picloram hormone was the best for somatic embryo induction, while the leaf explants was the best explants for embryo induction. Overall, it was observed that response to different phytohormone supplementations was largely genotype-dependent

Key Words: Manihot esculenta Crantz, Somatic embryogenesis, explants, photoperiod, genotypes

About the Authors

 1Mathew Piero Ngugi (PhD) is a lecturer in the department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Kenyatta University. His research interests include biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, forensic science and phytochemistry.

1Richard Okoth Oduor (PhD) is a senior lecturer in the department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Kenyatta University. His research interests include biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry and forensic science.

1Christine Nakhumicha Wanyonyi is a postgraduate student in the Plant Transformation Laboratory of the Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Kenyatta University. She works on optimization of several protocols for regeneration of tuber crops

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Abstract # 13

 Morphological Characterization of Yellow Passion Fruits in Mbeere, Embu County, Kenya

 1Mwirigi Peter*, 2Maina Mwangi and 3Joseph Gweyi-Onyango

Department of Agriculture Science Technology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya

*Corresponding author email: mwirigip@gmail.com

 Yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) has emerged as an important high-value horticultural crop in Kenya and has gained wide adoption in Embu County due to its apparent adaptation to the hot arid conditions and a ready market for the fruit. The main objective of this study was to characterize yellow passion cultivars grown by farmers using morphological traits. Fifty nine cultivars grown in different farmers’ orchards were sampled, and 10 morphological variables measured on these accessions were subjected to multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering criterion. The results indicate that scores on the first principal component (PC-1) which accounted for 19.9% of the total variation were highly correlated (correlation coefficient >0.3) to characters related to twining direction, leaf color and leaf density. PC-2 which explained 13.7% of the total variation was highly associated with twinning direction, fruit color and maturity period of the passion. PC-3 explained 13.07% of the variation and was mainly correlated to maturity period of the passion.

Correlation among characters shows four main clusters with the first cluster comprising of traits associated with fruit color, maturity period, shape of the fruit and source of the planting material; the second cluster is associated with the twining direction; the third cluster with leaf density and leaf color while the fourth cluster is associated with number of vines per plant, stem color and yield per plant. The cluster analysis separated the fifty nine accessions as different genotypes with Euclidean similarity distance ranging from 0.99 to 0.08. At 0.92 level of similarity, agglomerative hierarchical clustering Dendogram indicates that almost all the 59 accessions were distinct from each other while at 0.48 level, half of the accessions were similar to each other. The pruned Dendogram at similarity distance of 0.05 identified four main clusters 1, 2, 3 and 4 according to the local names and the major morphological characters associated with them.

This study has shown that despite the large number of cultivars, there is not significant variability since only four distinct clusters could be identified. This can be attributed to the fact that the majority of the seedlings are sourced from once source which mainly propagates the KPF3, KPF4 and KPF12 varieties. Nevertheless, this information can be used to screen for specific cultivars or for general genetic improvement and design of conservation programs. However, there is a need for further studies using molecular and other confirmatory techniques.

Key words: Characterization, Principal Component Analysis, Yellow Passion, Cluster analysis

 ABOUT THE AUTHORS

 Peter MWAIRIGI is a Senior Research Administrator and a PhD student at Kenyatta University. He Peter has wide experience in plant biotechnology and has keen interest in tissue culture propagation, agronomy and plant conservation.

 Maina MWANGI, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer and Director of Research Support at Kenyatta University. He has wide experience in plant pathology with keen interest in ecology of disease transmission and plant abiotic interactions.

 Joseph GWEYI, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer at Kenyatta University and has wide experience in crop.

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Abstract # 14

Social Network Analysis of Aquaculture Projects on Provisioning Services Enhancement of Peatland Forest Ecosystem in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

1Francisca Kilonzi*, 1Takahiro Ota, 2Kazuhiko Moji, 3Aswin Usup

1School of Fisheries & Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University; 2School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University.;3University of Parangkaraya, Faculty of Agriculture.

* Corresponding Author: franciscakarem@gmail.com

Improper implementation of peatland forest activities has altered the forest ecosystem, resulting to near extinct or degradation of the peatland forest and its biodiversity. To salvage the endangered peatland forest, the government of Indonesia set regulations imposing strict rules on peatland forests. These regulations banned the commercial or large scale use of forest timber products leading to permanent closure of all timber related companies. The loss of jobs by the people who benefited directly or indirectly from the companies was the major consequence. In return, the people focused on ecosystem services (ES) use for home consumption. Fish catch from the natural ponds in the forest recorded the highest caught provisioning service by the riparian communities’ leading to over fishing.

This research focuses on stakeholder attribute analysis for successful management of the aquaculture projects to ensure enhancement of provisioning services (fish) in the streams, ponds and rivers in the peat forest by providing an alternative source of fish to the community in a case study of Hampangen village, central Kalimantan in Indonesia.

The exclusive features in our analysis show that the income of the stakeholders or their educational level do not necessarily influence their roles and position in the leadership network nor do they determine the ES usage from the forest. This research challenges the mainstream understanding on stakeholders’ selection based on educational background or income levels.  From our studies, we propose stakeholder selection based on social network attributes for a successful group or communal project management.

 Table 1. Analysis Stakeholder Betweenness Core and Periphery and the ES use

Stakeholder/

Actor

Fish ES Use Monthly Income Betweenness Core/Periphery
MPFG

L2

 

Monthly.

 

150 USD

 

3.900

 

Core

L4 Weekly 100 USD 3.433 Periphery
M3 Monthly 140 USD 0.450 Periphery
M5 Monthly 300 USD 1.650 Periphery
M6 Daily 150 USD 0.950 Core
HIFG.

L2

 

Weekly

 

300 USD

 

3.815

 

Core

L3 Daily 210 USD 1.833 Core
L4 Monthly 140 USD 3.259 Core
M1 Daily 150 USD 3.222 Periphery
M2 Weekly 132 USD 0.500

 

Periphery

 

Key words: Social network analysis; ecosystem services; aquaculture; Indonesia.

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Abstract # 15

Forest Management Agreements as a Land Use Planning Model for Wildlife Conservation:      An Analysis of the Malawian Implementation Framework

 Felemont Kayulayula Banda.

University of Malawi-Polytechnic, Department of Land Surveying & Physical Planning

Author’s email: fbanda@poly.ac.mw

Land use planning is central to environmental conservation in general and to wildlife conservation in particular. There are several land use planning models which are used for the conservation of the environment. These models are found in various legislative frameworks. Some are coercive in nature whereas some are collaborative.

The general objective of this study was to investigate whether forest management agreements are an effective land use planning model for wildlife conservation in Malawi. The operating assumption was that, collaborative approaches are more effective land use planning models relative to coercive or penal approaches.

Data for the study was collected using mixed methods. Questionnaires were administered to forestry officials, local community leaders of the areas where conservation areas are located, and to households surrounding the conservation areas selected at random.

The findings from questionnaires were compared with data collected through focus group discussions and key informants. Results of the study show that forest management agreements as a land use planning model has a high potential for wildlife conservation in Malawi. However, its effectiveness is affected by lack of follow-up on the agreements by government officials.

The paper concludes by arguing that forest management agreements are an effective land use planning model for environmental conservation where there is commitment from both government authorities and local community conservation stakeholders. On this basis, the paper proposes that more effort should be directed towards the establishment of these forest management agreements as a land use planning model than relying on penal approaches which are currently the preferred and most prevalent approaches of wildlife conservation.

Key Words: Forest management; land use planning; wildlife conservation; environment conservation; Malawi.

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Abstract # 16

Where there is Inadequate Mental Health Service: Role of The Society for the Advancement of Science in Africa (SASA)

Emilio Ovuga

Gulu University

Email: emilio.ovuga@gmail.com

Mental disorders are common worldwide. The global burden of disease due to mental disorders has been estimated at 14%. Mental disorders are reported to contribute 7.4% of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and 22.9% of years lived with disability (YLD). However, resources allocated to promote mental health and provide care are inadequate. Mental health is accorded low priority by society and national governments in Africa. The treatment gap for various mental disorders has been reported as varying from 32.2% for schizophrenia to 78.1% for alcohol and substance use disorders. This is notwithstanding efforts by some national governments to integrate mental health services into general health care, and decentralize mental health services to lower levels of national health care delivery systems. There is limited awareness and appreciation that mental disorders can be treated, controlled or even cured. Human resources for mental health are grossly inadequate and attraction to the specialty of psychiatry remains low because of little financial gain and perceived stigma associated with the discipline. Animistic practices lead communities in Africa to turn to supernatural forces for cure and healing. The majority of individuals therefore lack access to available basic modern mental health services.

Basing on the biopsychosocial model of mental illness, the origins of mental health problems in Africa can be categorized into hereditary, physical and nutritional factors, adverse psychological experiences, and chronic socio-economic stressors. Of particular interest for preventive and mental health promotion purposes are the problems of infectious diseases, chronic malnutrition, domestic violence, abuse and neglect, and chronic armed conflict.

In this paper, I shall outline some approaches to make mental health services available to people close to where they live. I shall advocate for the involvement of lay community representatives in the provision of mental health first aid as a strategy to prevent or at least delay the progression of mental illness, enhance early remission, promote retention of affected individuals in treatment, reduce stigma and discrimination, and improve the quality of life of individuals as well as to promote psychosocial functioning. I shall conclude with some recommendations on the role of the Society for Advancement of Science in Africa.

Key Words: Mental disorders; mental health services; disease burden; biopsychosocial model; infectious diseases; chronic malnutrition; domestic violence, abuse and neglect; chronic armed conflict; Uganda.

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Abstract # 17

Design of an Antigen Capture Test for Human Onchocerciasis

 Ferdinand Ngale Njume

Free University of Brussels (ULB), Belgium

 Author’s email: fngalenjume@gmail.com

Human onchocerciasis is a debilitating skin disease that ultimately leads to blindness if untreated. It is caused by the nodular nematode O. volvulus, which currently infects about 18 million people worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) control programs are currently requiring sensitive and specific diagnostic tools to replace the poorly sensitive skin-snip test in monitoring progress made towards elimination of the disease. Limited attempts have been made towards the development of an antigen-capture test for immuno-diagnosis of the disease. One major drawback to the identification of suitable diagnostic antigens has been the limited knowledge on the biology of Onchocerca volvulus and the set of antigens involved in host parasite interplay.

We sought to characterize an excretory secretory product (ESP) of O. volvulus herein denoted Ov28CRP in an effort towards the design of an antigen capture test for human onchocerciasis. Ov28CRP transcript was found to be expressed in all parasite stages by RT-qPCR and the full-length protein was detected in 8 hrs in-vitro ESPs of adult male, adult female and L3 stages of O. volvulus by western blot using antibodies against a synthetic peptide of Ov28CRP.

The full length recombinant protein was found to differentiate between patient sera and controls both by western blots and IgG based ELISA. Differential IgG responses to the recombinant Ov28CRP found the IgG2 and IgG4 subclasses to better differentiate between patient serum and control sera than the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses.

We herein conclude that Ov28CRP is a secreted protein of O. volvulus with potential roles in ensuring disease progression that can be exploited for the design of an antigen capture test for human onchocerciasis.

Key Words: Human onchocerciasis; onchocerca volvulus; excretory secretory product; antigen capture test.

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Abstract # 18

Prevalence, Awareness and Treatment Rates of Hypertension Among Patients Attending General Outpatient Department of Gulu District, Northern Uganda

1Walubembe J*, 1Kayinda F, 1Adokorach G, 1Kasurra S, 1Khisa S, 1Kantu R, 1Acaye AG, 2Babua C and 2Musoke D.

Gulu University

*Corresponding Author Email: jwalubembe@gmail.com

Hypertension is the most reported non-communicable disease in Uganda. However, many people are not aware that they have high blood pressure and a few of those who are aware of the condition are on treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, awareness and treatment rates of hypertension in Gulu District, Northern Uganda.

The methodology followed was a cross sectional descriptive study involving 424 participants who were recruited consecutively from four government health units in Gulu District. The World Health Organization’s STEPs tool was used to collect data on demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. Hypertension was defined as Systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 and/or Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90mm Hg or currently on anti-hypertensive medication. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with hypertension.

Of the 424 participants surveyed, 323(76.2%) were females, mean age was 36.1+/- 14 years. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 21.0%. Just over thirty eight percent (38.2%) of the participants with hypertension were aware they were hypertensive and only 21.3% were currently on antihypertensive treatment. The only modifiable risks associated with hypertension were lack of enough exercise (p =0.0007, 95% CI 1.1842-1.3258) and a higher body mass index (P=0.001, 95% CI 4.8531-7.8531)

We conclude that the prevalence of hypertension in Gulu is high. Only 38.2% of persons with hypertension were aware of their hypertension, indicating a high burden of undiagnosed and uncontrolled high blood pressure in Gulu district, Northern Uganda.

Key Words: Hypertension; prevalence; awareness; treatment rates; Uganda.

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Abstract # 19

Is Liquid Medicine a Hidden Danger to Non-Communicable Oral Health of Children in Rwanda?

1Chrispinus Hakimu Mumena*, 2Emmanuel Bwimbo, 1Eliane Harerimana Ingabire, 3Bernard Ondari, Gatarayiha Agnes and Uwambaye Peace

1 School of Dentistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda

2 Police Kacyiru Hospital Dental Clinic, Kigali Rwanda

3 School of Health Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda.

Corresponding author: Dr MUMENA Chrispinus Hakimu Mumena *cmumena@ur.ac.rw

 Cariogenic sugar substrate in liquid medicine is known for its effects on oral health. Children taking these medicines over a prolonged period are at high risk of non-communicable oral diseases. Despite the prevalence of chronic diseases in the community, oral health status of children exposed to long-term use of such medicines is not known. Therefore, it is likely that strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral disease may not be available to this population. Poor oral health presents a challenge to their general wellbeing and overall health, in general.

This study aimed to assess the oral health status of children using long-term liquid medicines.

A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among children exposed to liquid medicine for a long duration. Children with chronic medical conditions and using liquid medicines were recruited randomly. Standardized self-assessment questionnaires were distributed to guardians and/or parents (by hand). Questionnaires were structured to gather information on the use of liquid medicines and the disease/s that affected their children. After submission of questionnaires, the oral cavity of respective children was examined for presence of plaque, gingival bleeding, dental caries and any other oral lesions. Statistical analysis was conducted and P-value < 0.05, was considered significant.

A total of 135 children with chronic diseases between 2-12 years were studied. About 47.4% (64) were females and 52.6% (71) were males. Plaque, bleeding gums, and dental caries were found in 86.7% (117), 86.7% (117), and 82.2% (111) of the children, respectively. No significant difference was found between genders. Majority of children using more than one type of liquid medicines for prolonged period showed dental caries.

A substantial number of children using liquid medicines had poor oral health. The use of more than one liquid medicine increased probability of having poor oral health. The current findings substantiate comprehensive research on children using liquid medicine and incorporation of oral health education in pediatric clinics. Also, when available, attempt should be taken to replace liquid medications with solid tablet form medications.

Key words: Non-communicable; oral health; pediatric; medicines, pharmaceuticals.

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Abstract # 20

Factors Associated with Orthodontic Treatment Among Patients Attending a University Teaching Dental Clinic in Kigali, Rwanda

1Uwitonze AM, 1Isyagi M*, 2Mugisha M, 3Amizero J, 1Dusabe J and 2Nzayirambaho M

1University of Rwanda, School of Dentistry, Department Preventive and Community Dentistry, Rwanda; 2University of Rwanda, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial, Rwanda. 3University of Rwanda, School of Dentistry, Dental Consultancy Center; 4University of Rwanda, School of Public Health.

*Corresponding Author: mmisyagi@gmail.com

An attractive smile is appreciated by everyone and individuals are conscious of others’ perceptions of their physical appearance. It impacts positively on self-esteem, and social and professional relationships. Malocclusion or facial aesthetics outside societal norms are perceived negatively with a negative impact on self-esteem and social acceptance. The uptake of orthodontic treatment is highly associated with a desire to have an attractive aesthetic smile and the benefits afforded. Studies on factors determining the uptake of orthodontic treatment in a Rwandan context are non-existent. We sought to determine the factors associated with orthodontic treatment uptake among patients attending a University Teaching Dental Clinic in Kigali Rwanda

A cross-sectional study of 980 electronic medical records and files of orthodontic patients was done. Data on socio-demographic factors, presenting complaint, and diagnoses were collected. Analysis included descriptive statistics to provide information on orthodontic patients. Bivariate analysis using Chi-square test between independent variables and orthodontic treatment was done for associations. Logistic regression analysis was performed for statistically significant variables.

 The majority of the study population were female (57.55%) and fell in the age group 12 to 18 years 440 (44.89%). Associations were found between orthodontic treatment and anterior open bite (P=0.009), age groups (P= 0.049), gender (P= 0.000), insurance coverage (P= 0.000) and type of insurance (P= 0.000). Being female (aOR=0.58), aged 12-30 years (aOR=1.42), insured with Rwanda Social Security Board (aOR=3.92) or Military Medical Insurance (OR=3.00), and having an anterior open bite (aOR=1.60) were found to be predictive of orthodontic treatment uptake.

Population-based surveys and screening in primary schools are needed in order to assess interceptive orthodontic treatment needs early before adolescence or adulthood.

 Key words: Malocclusion, orthodontic treatment, esthetic smile, self-esteem

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 Abstract # 21

Knowledge and Attitude of Adult Rwandese Towards Replacement of Posterior Teeth

1Uwitonze Anne Marie* and 2Isyagi Moses

1University of Rwanda, School of Dentistry, Department of Preventive & Community Dentistry, Rwanda; 2University of Rwanda, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial, Rwanda.

*Corresponding Author: annemariemunya@yahoo.fr

Proper nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of non-communicable diseases. However, nutritional status can be compromised by tooth loss. Posterior teeth play an important role in mastication but are the most commonly extracted and least replaced prosthetically. We assessed the knowledge and attitude of adult patients towards prosthetic replacement of extracted posterior teeth at Muhima Hospital Dental Clinic using a cross sectional study design.

A semi structured interview using closed and open-ended questions was used to collect data on age, gender, profession, employment status, monthly income, level of education, residence, insurance status, knowledge and attitude towards posterior tooth loss. The collected data was analyzed for correlations between demographic data and knowledge and/or attitude of patients towards prosthetic replacement of extracted posterior teeth. Tests of significance between variables were done using Chi square test and ANOVA for comparison of means.

Of 323 adults sampled, 172 (53.3%) were unaware of the consequences of posterior tooth loss. Associations were found between change in facial appearance and age (p= 0.000), educational level (p=0.000) and income (p=0.04); food avoidance and educational level (p=0.06); mobility of remaining teeth and professions (p=0.003); mobility of remaining teeth and insurance type (p=0.02); loss of more teeth and insurance type (p=0.04). Males had a slightly more positive attitude than females (56.6% against 51.5%) towards teeth replacement. Ninety nine percent of the study population had a negative attitude towards prosthetic replacement of posterior teeth. Only one (0.3%) had replaced a missing posterior tooth.

Summarizing results of our study population, we conclude that adult Rwandese prefer not to replace posterior lost teeth. Non-replacement of posterior teeth is mostly due to lack of knowledge on consequences of posterior teeth loss, and the available treatment options. Such negative attitude is partly contributed by the low socio-economic status.

Key words: Posterior teeth, prosthetic replacement, knowledge, attitude.

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Abstract # 22

Molecular Techniques for DNA Methylation Analysis in Cancer Research

Author: Abdoulkarim Uzabakiriho

Author’s e-mail: abuzabak@yahoo.com

Ankara University, School of Health Science, Interdisciplinary Forensic Science (Forensic Biology) Department, Ankara, Turkey

With few exceptions, all cells in a person’s body have the same DNA and genes. As cells divide and grow, different genes are expressed, resulting in different cell types. There are many ways to control gene expression in eukaryotes, but DNA methylation is one of epigenetic mechanisms that cells use to lock genes in the “off” position. DNA methylation occurs by the addition of a methyl (CH3) group to the DNA strand itself, often to the 5th carbon atom of a cytosine ring within CpG dinucleotides, which results in 5-methylcytosine (5-mC). This conversion of cytosine bases to 5-mC is catalysed by DNA ethyltransferases (DNMTs) enzymes using a S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet or SAM) donor. Methylation of DNA occurs in the promoter region of genes, which is the area that initiates replication of the gene. These changes can involve hypomethylation and/or hypermethylation that lead to cell differentiation and growth disorders.

In recent decade, researchers have linked abnormal DNA methylation to human diseases such as lupus, muscular dystrophy and cancer. In many different cancer types, aberrant DNA methylation has been shown to play a major role in tumorigenesis and cancer development. Thus, investigating DNA methylation status is important for early diagnosis of cancer, prognosis and prediction of response to therapies. For this extent, we discuss the molecular techniques for DNA methylation analysis with potential clinical applications in cancer research.

Key Words: DNA methylation; cancer research

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Abstract # 23

A Digital Citizen Science Platform for Malaria Vector Surveillance and Control  in Ruhuha, Rwanda

 1Marilyn M. Murindahabi*, 2Deidre Bosch, 3Asingizwe Domina, 3Leon Mutesa, 4Emmanuel Hakizimana, 5Marijn Poortvliet, 6Arnold J.H. van Vliet, 7Sander Koenraadt, 5Peter Feindt      and 7Willem Takken

1Department of Biology, College of Sciences and Technology, University of Rwanda

2Geographic Information Sciences, Wageningen University & Research

3Research Center, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda

4Rwanda Biomedical Center, Malaria and Other Parasitic Diseases Division, Vector control Unit

5Strategic Communication, Wageningen University & Research

6Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University & Research

7Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research

*Corresponding Author: milmamur80@gmail.com

Malaria remains a public health disease that continues to devastate lives especially in the Sub-Saharan African regions in general, and in East African countries in particular. Despite the progress and efforts already made through the use of long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying, Rwanda is experiencing a resurgence of malaria. Factors explaining this resurgence have been attributed to climate variability, an increase in insecticide resistance, and behavior change of the mosquito vectors.

To date, surveillance systems for the management of vector-borne diseases depend on collaboration with skilled scientists including entomologists, epidemiologists, and statisticians. These skills are rarely represented in the average malaria control programs, especially in Rwanda where vector surveillance is still in its infancy. Therefore, the emerging digital technology offers a new way of prompt generation of data on malaria and entomology surveillance in low resource settings countries through public- or community-based data collection and reporting without any expertise in the concerned research field.

 Our research aims to establish a citizen science approach using emerging digital technologies (web-based and mobile technology) to enable entomological monitoring and surveillance of malaria vectors. This will provide relevant data on time and at affordable cost on malaria vector species composition, abundance, spatial temporal dynamics, and malaria prevalence. Hence, it will address the current knowledge gap on mosquito ecology with the active participation of community. Moreover, it will contribute to develop novel interventions and strategies that will sustain the current national malaria control programmes. For example, such an approach will enable communities in Ruhuha (Rwanda) to become aware of the impact of water management on malaria mosquito breeding: irrigated rice fields, rainwater harvesting sites and drainage of stagnant water in the peri-domestic environment.

Key Words: Malaria; science platform; malaria vector surveillance; Rwanda

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Abstract # 24

Malnutrition and Oral Health Interdependence in the Era of Market Globalization

1Chrispinus Hakimu Mumena*, 1Agnes Gatarayiha and 2Mohammed S Razzaque

1School of Dentistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.

2Harvard University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, USA

*Corresponding author contact: cmumena@ur.ac.rw or mumenac@gmail.com

Poor oral health causes malnutrition, which in turn leads to poor oral health. Worldwide, malnutrition is a problem for both children and elderly. Two types of malnutrition exist, nutrition deprivation and excess. On-going urbanization and economic development are associated with rapid changes in diets and lifestyle. Those changes shift human dependence from natural food to processed foods. The quality and quantity of micronutrients in processed foods is questionable. The role of micronutrients in oral health continues to be appreciated. The role of vitamin D has recently been revealed to have paramount effects in oral health, tissue development, reduction of inflammation, reduction of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Is market globalization and urbanization supportive to oral health? More attention is needed to assess oral health in relation to human diet and behavior.

The study question posed was: Are oral diseases increasing with changes in diet and life styles?

The methodology followed was a retrospective review of the existing literature on oral health, nutrition and life styles utilizing a PubMed search through Google Scholar search engine. Key words were: malnutrition, oral health, dental caries, and periodontal diseases. Only English language and articles within the last 10 years were considered for inclusion. Titles and abstracts were evaluated if they contained sufficient information on the association of nutrition and oral health.

We conclude that diet and nutrition affects oral health in many ways, such as craniofacial development, oral cancer, and oral infection. Dental diseases such as dental caries, developmental defects of enamel, dental erosion, and periodontal diseases may become the new challenge on top of HIV.

Our recommendations are: Encourage natural diets with good nutritional values; raise awareness to promote breast-feeding; reduce teeth exposure to sugary substances; advise reduction of consumption of sugary soft drinks that are a major risk factor in dental caries and dental erosion; reduce alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking; advise exposure to sunlight at least 20-30 minutes per day (between 11:00-3:00), to enrich the body with sufficient Vitamin D.

Key words: Non-communicable diseases; biotechnology; medicine; diet; social behavior.

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Abstract # 25

Risk of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Newborns in Women with Non-Communicable Periodontal Diseases

1Peace Uwambaye*, 1Anne Marie Uwitonze, 2Julienne Murererehe, 1Agnes Gatarayiha, 1Emmanuel Nzaboniman and 2Chrispinus Mumena         

1Department of Preventive & Community Dentistry, University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Dentistry, Kigali, Rwanda;

 2Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery & Oral Pathology, University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Dentistry, Kigali, Rwanda.

*Corresponding author Email: upeace20002000@yahoo.fr

Periodontal disease is one of the commonly encountered non-communicable diseases that might have a negative impact on maternal and child health. Periodontal infections serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may be a threat to the fetal-placental unit, and can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes like preterm and low birth weight (PLBW) newborns. Studies have shown that prematurity and the related disorders cause more than 70% of prenatal and infant mortality. In year 2001, roughly, 28,000 infants lost their lives before the age of one, mostly (two third) due to preterm delivery (1)

In this presentation, we will explain the possible association of PLBW newborn in women with periodontal diseases. In a study with 639 women, 406 had gingivitis and received treatment during pregnancy, and 233 had periodontal diseases and were treated after delivery (2). The incidence of PLBW (before 37 weeks’ gestation; ≤2500 g) was 2.5% in women with no periodontal problem, and 8.6% in women with periodontal diseases (p = 0.0004, relative risk = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.3).

Summarizing the available information, it appears likely that maternal periodontal diseases are associated with PLBW newborns and is an important risk factor for fetal health and survival.

Key Words: Preterm birth; low birth weight; periodontal disease; pregnancy; risk factors.

References

Khadem N, Rahmani ME, Sanaei A, Afiat M. Association between preterm and low-birth weight with periodontal disease: a case-control study. Iran J Reprod Med [Internet]. Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services; 2012 Nov [cited 2017 Jun 7];10(6):561–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246927

Lopez NJ, Smith P., Gutierrez J. Higher Risk of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight in Women with Periodontal Disease. J Dent Res [Internet]. 2002;81(1):58–63. Available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/154405910208100113

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Abstract # 26

Prevalence of Non-Communicable Dental Caries in Primary School Children in Rwanda

1Emmanuel Nzabonimana, 1Micongwe Moses Isyagi, 1Uziel Nsabimana, 2Rajab Sasi, 3Donna Hackley and 4Karl Self DDS

1University of Rwanda School of Dentistry, Kigali, Rwanda; 2Tanga Dental Therapist Training Centre, Tanzania; 3Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, USA and University of Rwanda School of Dentistry, Kigali, Rwanda; 4University of Minnesota School of Dentistry and University of Rwanda School of Dentistry, Minneapolis, USA

*Corresponding Author: nzabaemmy@gmail.com

Dental caries are a cause of dental morbidity and absenteeism amongst school children. Worldwide, prevalence of caries in 6-12 year olds ranges from 24% to 97% depending on country. To determine the caries experience and impact on oral health quality of life, primary school children were selected from two primary schools in Kigali City, Rwanda.

A cross-sectional study on dental caries’ experience was performed using an abbreviated version for children of the questionnaire Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) and  a WHO survey form for the assessment of dental caries. It involved 384 children aged between 6-12 years old at Gitega and Kabusunzu Primary Schools, Nyarugenge District, Kigali, Rwanda. Data for dental caries experience and oral impacts were recorded and analyzed with the statistical package SPSS 20 for frequency and associations.

Caries affected 126 (32.8%) children studied and was less prevalent in 6-9 than 10-12 year olds.  Male students, 72 (18.8%), had more caries than female students, 54 (14.4%). 218 (56.8%) pupils reported caries associated oral impacts, including difficulty in eating, difficulty in cleaning teeth and poor school performance. Difficulty in cleaning teeth was the commonest impact affecting 105 (27.5%) of children.

In conclusion, non-communicable dental caries experience and its detrimental oral impacts on performance are likely to increase unless strategic preventative oral health interventions are implemented to mitigate oral impacts on daily performance.

 Key Words: Caries experience; oral impact; daily performanc; Rwanda.

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Abstract # 27

Prevalence of Neurocognitive Disorders in the General Wards of a Regional Referral Hospital in Northern Uganda

*Kasumba D, Iceta F, Jjunju S and **Ovuga E

Gulu University

* Presenter and corresponding author:Kasumba Denis,5th Year Medical Student, Email:kasumba.dns23@gmail.com

** Supervisor

Global dementia prevalence in those aged above 60years is about 5-7% but reported to be lower in sub-Saharan Africa at 2-4%. Data on prevalence of dementia for northern Ugandans is so far lacking.

We used a cross-sectional descriptive study design to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive disorders in non-psychiatric wards at a regional referral hospital in Northern Uganda. The hospital admits approximately 7224 adult patients annually. We sampled 333 adult in-patients admitted to the hospital during the study period (February to April-2017) using a sample size table for clinical studies (David Machin et al., 2009). We recruited consenting adult in-patients consecutively till the sample size was achieved. We collected data using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM IV, American Psychiatry Association-APA, 1994) criteria and used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 11.0 for analysis.

Findings are summarized below. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 95 years with a mean age of 39.4 and standard deviation of 1.76. Approximately eighty two percent (82.9%) were below the age of 60 years and 17.1% were aged 60 years and older. Females comprised 55.3% and males 44.7%. About 14.1%, 53.5% and 32.4% respectively had increased, decreased and intermediate odds of having dementia. Age (P=0.0001) and gender (P=0.045) predicted dementia prevalence. Those aged below 60 were 0.937 times less likely to have dementia. Males were 2.965 times likely to have dementia. Just over seven percent (7.5%) of the patients had dementia. Seventy eight percent of the patients with dementia were aged above 60. Sixteen percent of the patients were HIV-positive. Thirty two percent of the patients aged less than 60 years had dementia with 12% of these being HIV-positive while 20% were HIV-negative.

We conclude that many of the respondents were below the age of 33 years. The prevalence of dementia was 7.5% and the prevalence of dementia increased with age. Early onset of dementia (age ≤60years) was probably due to HIV infection.

Key Words: Neurocognitive disorders; dementia; HIV; Northern Uganda.

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Abstract # 28

Diabetes Mellitus in Tuberculosis Patients and Its Impact on Clinical Presentations

1,2Pacifique Ndishimye*, 3Cenariu Mihai, 1Olga Soritau, 4Daniela Homorodean, 5Abderrahim Sadak and 1,4Carmen Monica Pop

1“Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, Romania

2INES-Ruhengeri, Musanze, Rwanda

3Immunopathology Laboratory, UASVM, Cluj Napoca, Romania

4“Leo Daniello” Pneumology Hospital, Cluj Napoca, Romania

5Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco

*Corresponding author Email: ndipac@gmail.com

 Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues and their association may be the next challenge for global TB control worldwide. The epidemiological features of TB in the diabetics have been extensively studied, but immunologic responses of TB patients in diabetic condition are still not completely understood.

 The main objective of this study is to provide an update on the clinical and epidemiological features of TB in the diabetic population and also to determine the immunological profile of TB patients with and without DM.

 The study enrolled 135 eligible patients with TB who presented in 2015 at Leo Daniello Pneumology Hospital, Romania and compared clinical features of patients with (38 cases) and without DM (97 cases). A control group of 23 healthy individuals was also enrolled in this study. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-β and IL-10 cytokines were measured in the plasma using commercially available enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Regulatory T- cells (CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+) and CD4+ Activated T-cells (CD38+ HLA-DR+) were analysed using BD FACSCantoTM II Flow Cytometry. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.0.

The results showed that TB patients with diabetes presented a higher frequency of negative sputum smears and lower lobe involvement comparED to patients without DM. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of pleural effusions or isolated pleural TB between patients with and without DM. An increased risk of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) was observed among diabetics. The results also showed higher IL-10, lower IFN-γ and a lower frequency of regulatory T-cells in TB-DM versus TB-no DM patients.

Improved understanding of the bidirectional relationship of the two diseases is necessary for proper planning and collaboration to reduce the dual burden of DM and TB.

Key Words: Tuberculosis; diabetes mellitus; cytokines; regulatory T cells.

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Abstract # 29

Serosurveillance on Ebola Infections in the Northern District of Sierra Leone During the 2014-2015 Outbreak

1Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa*, 2G, Russo, 3,4,5Raoul E. Guetiya Wadoum, 1Martin Sobze, 6Emmanuel Iwerima, 3M. Giovanetti, 3A. Minutolo, 7Thomas B. Turay, 7Mahmadou Mgabo, 2M. Amicosante, 8M. Ciccozzi, 8G. Rezza, 3,4,5,9Vittorio Collizi, 3M. Mattei and 3.4.5.9C. Montesano*

* Corresponding Author: montesano@uniroma2.it 

1University of Dschang, Cameroon

2University of Rome ”La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy

3University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy

4University of Makeni, Makeni, Sierra Leone

5Holy Spirit Hospital, Makeni, Sierra Leone

6African Union Support to Ebola Outbreakin West Africa (ASEOWA)

7Partner Relief Development, Freetown, Sierra Leone

8Italian Institute of Health – ISS, Rome, Italy

9UNESCO Chair in Biotechnology and Bioethic

The presence of detectable antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) in asymptomatic individuals after exposure suggests a putative role for antibody response in the control of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and provides information on EBOV seroprevalence in at risk populations.

To assess the extent of asymptomatic or mild cases of Ebola virus infection in community contacts (CCs) and professional contacts of EVD cases (survivors or deaths), we carried out an epidemiological survey and serological analyses among EVD survivors and their contacts in the District of Bombali, Sierra Leone. The survey has been authorized by the Ethical Committee of the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone, and covered 256 individuals: 68 EVD survivors assisted at Loreto Clinic and leaving in the surrounding of Makeni; 79 Health Care Workers (HCWs) from Holy Spirit Hospital and Loreto Clinic in Makeni; a rural population of SandaLoko Chiefdom in Bombali District, with four survivors and their 105 community contacts (HHCs). Using a sensitive and specific ELISA method, we found a ZEBOV-specific IgG seroprevalence of 95.6% among the 68 survivors; of 3.8% among the 79 HCWs and 11.4% among the CCs.

Our data suggest a circulation of sub-clinical EBOV infections among contacts of EVD patients and HCWs although several studies have shown different results obtained by using different assays, different ELISA tests and also variations in the definition of contact. Our data open several interesting questions on the virulence and pathogenicity of the Ebola virus in Sierra Leone.

Key Words: Ebola; serosurveillance;Sierra Leone.

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Abstract # 30

Utility of Saliva as a Biomaterial for Screening Communicable Diseases in African Countries

1Agnes Gatarayiha, 1Julienne Murererehe, 1Peace Uwambaye, 1Chrispinus H.Mumena and 2Mohammed S. Razzaque

1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kigali, Rwanda.

2Harvard University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, USA

*Corresponding author: agnesgat@yahoo.fr

There is an increased mortality due to various communicable diseases in the African countries, mostly due to late diagnosis of diseases and their treatments. In these diseases, the biomarker serves as an indispensable gold standard for monitoring numerous infectious diseases, including malaria, transfusion transmissible blood diseases (HIV, HCV, and HBV), tuberculosis, and typhoid fever. Blood is routinely used as a biomaterial for clinical diagnosis of many of these infectious diseases, but such laboratory practice is not always risk free, particularly in African countries where blood-based laboratory analysis poses risk of infection and disease transmission. In contrary, saliva is a noninvasively obtainable biomaterial that is successfully used for early detection of infectious diseases, such as early detection of Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Proteins 2 (PfHRP-2) in saliva, which is diagnostic for malaria patients, even those tested negative for PfHRP-2 in their blood.

We will present the utility of saliva as a biomaterial for detecting various communicable and non-communicable diseases. Whole saliva, collected from the patients with various communicable and non-communicable diseases, will be used to evaluate the biomarkers for early detection.

It has been found from recent studies that some biomarkers appear in saliva much earlier than in blood. For instance, a significant elevation of salivary phosphate content was associated with the evolvement of childhood obesity, while no such changes in phosphate levels were noted in plasma among the same group of children (collected simultaneously with saliva). It has also been shown that saliva used as quick, easy and reliable method for detecting the microbial and production of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1a and 1b in patients with periodontal diseases.

In this presentation, we will highlight the importance of adopting salivary biomarkers as a part of patient screening system and to reduce the burden on blood-based laboratory analysis. More importantly, they reduce the risk of blood-related disease transmission, and make it more cost-effective without affecting the quality of the patient care in African countries including Rwanda.

Key Words: Saliva; biomaterials; communicable diseases; African countries.

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Abstract # 31

The Disease Burden of Non Communicable and Infectious Diseases in Neglected Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisons in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda

Kamurari* S, Laker GF, Eromu I, Ochaya M, Wokorach D, Akera P and Oboke H

Gulu University, Uganda

*Corresponding Author and Presenter: Solomon Kamurari, 5th year Medical student

Email:  kamuraris@gmail.com

The world population of prisoners is ever increasing with the largest percentage of these in developing countries where social systems are poor. In Uganda, congestion rates are estimated at 162% with overwhelming communicable diseases, mental Illness, and women-related challenges.

Our objective was to determine the health care problems in prisons and their likely impact on prisoner rehabilitation in a post-conflict district of Gulu, Northern Uganda.

 We carried out a cross-sectional study in three Prisons in Gulu District. Prisons were selected by a proportionate stratified sampling strategy. In each prison, we selected participants by simple random sampling. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire designed for the study, and analyzed quantitative data using the statistical package SPSS 16. Qualitative data was collected in key informant interviews.

 The results indicated that of the 278 participants, most prisoners were youth (60.9%), awaiting trial (66.3%), and most had already spent 1-5 years (59.4%) in prison. Congestion rates were as high as 325%. Two-thirds (67.6%) of the prisoners reported poor sanitation and highly prevalent communicable diseases. The commonest infections cited were; outbreaks of eye diseases, diarrhea diseases, and Malaria. Other Infections included Hepatitis, Tuberculosis and HIV. The participating prisons lacked isolation units and sickbays. Over ninety percent (92.6%) of the prisons had inadequate healthcare with many citing lack of drugs and personnel. One in 7 respondents (13.9%) suffered from mental illness before custody and 62.5% had not received adequate psychiatric care. Almost seventy percent (69.4%) of the respondents had experienced a traumatizing event, especially armed conflict and the majority reported frequent recall of the event (87.9%). Over seventy percent (72.5%) of the respondents reported having psychological distress in prison and 90.5% of these required psychiatric assessment on SRQ-20. Forty-five percent (45.8%) had suicidal ideation. Among females, 52.2% had children in prison with 85.7% citing dire living and health conditions for both populations.

 Several factors affected the rehabilitation process including, health, time on remand, living conditions and level of psychological distress.  The findings of this study indicate inadequate services in the participating prisons with a burden of both infectious and noncommunicable diseases affecting prisoner rehabilitation.

Key Words: Prison; disease; healthcare problems; litation; Uganda.

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Abstract # 32

Determination of Blood Concentration Levels of Psychotropic Medications in Rwandan Patients

*Innocent Hahirwa1,2, Corinne Charlier1, Charles Karangwa2 and Raphaël Denooz1.

1Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic, Environmental and Industrial Toxicology, CHU-Liege, Liege, Belgium.

2Laboratory of Analysis of Foodstuffs, Drugs, Water and Toxics, University of Rwanda,  School of  Medicine and Pharmacy, Huye, Rwanda.

* Corresponding Author: innocenthahirwa@gmail.com

 In Rwanda, no therapeutic monitoring of psychotropic drugs is done. This results in difficult treatment optimisation and exposition to a high risk of toxicity and drug ineffectiveness for patients under treatment. This study aimed to determine blood concentration levels of psychotropic drugs in Rwandan patients and identify problems associated with the lack of therapeutic drug monitoring of these drugs.

 The analysis was performed on 1 ml of serum sample using prazepam as internal standard. Regarding the step of sample preparation, we used a liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of organic solvents: diethyl ether/dichloromethane/hexane/n-amyl alcohol (50/30/20/0.5:V/V). A Waters Alliance 2695 was used for analysis. The chromatography was run on a Symmetry C8 column and as mobile phase acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 3.8) were used.

 Concerning the results, serum samples from 128 patients were analysed. Twenty-one different psychotropic drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes were detected and quantified. Analytical results were put into 3 categories based upon therapeutic reference ranges (TRR) of various drugs: subherapeutic, therapeutic and supratherapeutic. For a total of 237 analyses, results within TRR represented 46% while 47% and 8% of results were respectively below and beyond therapeutic reference ranges.

 It was therefore concluded that patients under psychotropic treatment in Rwanda are exposed to both the risk of drug ineffectiveness and the risk of toxicity (54%) with only 46% of results within the therapeutic reference range. Consequently, therapeutic drug monitoring is needed to optimize psychotropic treatment in Rwandan patients.

 Keywords: Psychotropic drugs, drug ineffectiveness, drug toxicity, Rwandan patients.

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Abstract # 33

Practice of Geophagia by Pregnant Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo – Katanga Epidemiological Data

1,3 Kalonji NJB*, 1 Boakanya IA, 2 Kalonji MBG, 1,3 Mwamba TP and 3 Duez P

1 Département de Galénique et Analyse des Médicaments, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Université de Lubumbashi.

2 Département de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Université de Lubumbashi

3 Service de Chimie Thérapeutique et de Pharmacognosie, Université de Mons.

Corresponding Author: jbkalonji@yahoo.fr

Geophagia is a common practice in Africa where many cases of picas are reported. During pregnancy, Congolese women manifest taste perversion and searching to eat various meals. They like precious and rare foods, earth also, despite the criticisms.

A survey of 1099 pregnant women was carried out in Kamina, Kolwezi and Lubumbashi from September 2014 to March 2015 to assess the importance of this practice and its perception by people concerned. They have been mitten in health centers, markets, homes and their work places. All of them acknowledged that they “ate a bit of earth” in their lives. More than 90% (1012) admitted to using Pemba (clay), Kinkalabwe (Limestone) or Bulongo (Earth) during their pregnancy. Financial possibilities, availability or habit justified the choice of either product: natural, smoked or salted. The majority were adults despite the presence of some minors. Although some did not attend school, the main group of them had a higher education (8%).

The principal motivation of geophagia (60%) relates to malaise due to pregnancy ranging from nausea to “bad mood”. Some (17%) admitted to being satisfied with it as a meal, others (36%) considered this practice to be just standard for each pregnant woman. The third party recognized the possibility of side effects by minimizing them, whether constipation (37%) or spotted child; Maternal anemia and the birth of a low-weight child had lower scores of 17 and 9%.

The prevalence of geophagia in Congolese pregnant women, whatever their sociocultural profile, is important. This practice has an impact on the parturient and on the unborn child. Stopping these habits can introduce other setbacks that are difficult to assess. The valuation of pregnant women geophagia is a pathway that must be borrowed to improve safety and activity of substances eaten.

Key Words: Geophagia; Pregnant women; Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Abstract # 34

Effect of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extract on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Immunomodulatory Activity of Lympho-Monocytoid Cells and PBMCs from Healthy Donors

1Marina Potestà**, 1Antonella Minutolo**, 1Angelo Gismondi, 1Lorena Canuti, 2Maurice Kenzo, 3Marco Cirilli, 4Sandro Grelli, 3Rosario Muleo, 1Antonella Canini, 1Vittorio Colizzi and 1Carla Montesano*

1Department of Biology, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy

2SOCOPOMO S/C 46 P.A. de Lingang Dschange, Cameroon

3Department of Agriculture, Forestry, Nature and Energy, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy;

4Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Rome, Italy.

**These authors contributed equally to this work

*Corresponding Author: montesano@uniroma2.it

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) is one of the most distributed species of Moringaceae family, which is also widely used in African traditional medicine. Different studies documented anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulatory and pro-apoptotic properties of MO leaf extract. Considering the limited data available about MO mature seeds, we evaluated, in lymphoid and monocytoid cells and PBMCs from healthy donors (HD PBMCs), the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of different MO mature seed aqueous extracts (MOE). We also investigated the possible effects of MOE treatment in CD4+ T cells differentiation mechanism and in immune restore.

Our results clearly demonstrated which MOE reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in HD PBMCs. Recent works have reported that miRNAs derived from plant foods are also functional in mammals, regulating the expression of host genes and, for this reason, the effects of miRNAs extracted from MOE on human cell proliferation and death regulation was also investigated.

We demonstrated the ability of MO miRNA pool to induce Bcl2 and SIRT1 mediated apoptosis in tumor cells, as also performed by total MOE. In addition, MOE treatment had immunomodulatory effects in PBMCs, changing the differentiation process of CD4+ T cells in activated PBMCs, and restoring CD3+CD4+ subtype in PBMCs exposed to a chemotherapeutic (cyclophosphamide).

In conclusion, MOE was able to regulate proliferation, apoptosis and immune response in different ways in healthy cells in contrast to cancer ones and our results suggested that MO effects were due to the combination of different components, especially miRNAs.

Key Words: Moringa oleifera; proliferation; apoptosis; immunomodulatory activity; lympho-monocytoid cells; PBMCs; African traditional medicine.

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Abstract # 35

The Project Phytokat in Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo): Conditions for the Integration of Traditional Medicine in Modern Healthcare and a Model Answer Against Anthropogenic Erosion of Biodiversity

1Bakari Amuri*, 2Meerts Pierre, 3Vandenput Sandrine, 4Okombe Victor, 5Ngoy Edouard, 6Ngoy Shutcha Mylor, 7Kahola Tabu Olivier, 6Kampemba Mujinga Florence, 6Nkulu Fyama Jules and 8Duez Pierre

1Université de Lubumbashi, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

2Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Laboratoire d’Ecologie végétale et Biogéochimie, Bruxelles, Belgium

3Université de Liège (ULg), Bibliothèque des Sciences de la Vie, Liège, Belgium

4Université de Lubumbashi, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Lubumbashi, /RD Congo

5Institut Supérieur Pédagogique-Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi/RD Congo

6Université de Lubumbashi, Faculté des Sciences agronomiques, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

7Université de Lubumbashi, Faculté des Sciences Sociales Politiques et Administratives, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

8Université de Mons (UMONS), Service de Chimie Thérapeutique et de Pharmacognosie, Mons, Belgium

* Corresponding Author: ubepharma@live.be

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) still faces multiple health problems. Notably the access to conventional medicine is limited, as in most Sub-Saharan countries. Traditional medicine is the primary, and often the only, source of care for a majority of the population and relies mainly on plants as a source of drugs. But in front of the rapid population growth such as observed in DRC (3.5% /year), the demand for medicinal plants implies a risk of extinction for several species, which requires to supplement supply by agriculture, possibly family farming.

This pilot project aims to establish the necessary foundation for progress in this direction in Katanga:

1. To evaluate the conditions for the introduction of traditional practices in modern medicine;

2. To deepen (i) the botanical and agronomic study of interesting species selected based on their interest in traditional medicine and the threat to their survival in the wild. Their garden cultivation would have two major advantages namely mass production and conservation of useful medicinal species; (ii) the pharmacological and chemical study of interesting plants, to highlight their pharmacological activities, mainly those related burden of disease in the region.

3. In the context of regional erosion of plant diversity, a conservation strategy is urgent and requires an inventory of their current distribution. It is imperative to think from now on about a sustainable way of using vegetable resources everywhere in Africa whenever we can meet such a situation.

Through a multidisciplinary team, this project will aim at correcting the weaknesses identified by the recent Joint Context Analysis, performed in DRC at the Direction Générale Coopération au Développement et Aide Humanitaire (DGD) initiative, for the domain environment / natural resources: “Lack of information, knowledge and awareness among decision makers and local communities on the benefits of biodiversity-related development”.

Key Words: Project Phytokat; traditional medicine integration; anthropogenic erosion; biodiversity; Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Abstract # 36

Genotypic Analyses of Onchocerca Volvulus βtubulin Gene in the Mbonge Sub-division (Cameroon): Evidence of Ivermectin Selection

 (1) Shintouo Cabirou Mounchili, (1), (2) Ferdinand Ngale Njume, (1), (2)Robert Shey Adamu, (2) Jacob Souopgui and (1)Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu*

(1) Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Biotechnology Unit, University of Buea, Cameroon

(2) Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biology and Molecular Medicine, IBMM, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

* Corresponding Author: stephen.ghogomu@ubuea.cm

Ivermectin (IVM) still remains the only safe drug for the mass control of onchocerciasis. However, recent reports show that there are populations of adult Onchocerca volvulus worms responding sub-optimally to IVM treatment. This response is indicative that resistance may be setting in. However, molecular assays must be carried out to confirm this hypothesis.

The assessment of the parasitological response profile of O. volvulus to IVM and genetic analysis of target genes become imperative for detection of resistance. Beta (β) tubulin isotype I gene, known to be one of these targets has been found to be associated with IVM selection in some nematodes. Some endemic regions of Cameroon have been under IVM treatment for almost two decades and it is not yet known if resistance is already emerging in these regions.

The objective of this study is to investigate if resistance is developing in an onchocerca volvulus-endemic region of Mbonge, South West Region of Cameroon. Onchocercal nodules were surgically removed from onchocerciasis patients in two cohorts with different treatment histories: a group that had received repeated doses of IVM for at least the previous 3 years, and a control group with no history of IVM treatment. The reproductive status of each female worm from excised nodules was assessed by the microscopical examination of their uteri.

Results revealed that whereas there was a predominance of the G allele in the naïve population, this was substituted by the T allele in the IVM-exposed population thereby suggesting that IVM selects for the T allele which may reduce worm fertility rate. Reverse transcription (RT) PCR of β-tubulin transcripts showed comparable expression levels in both IVM exposed and naïve worms. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the β-tubulin gene indicated that most of the IVM-exposed worms possessed the G allele thereby indicating that this allele may be implicated in IVM selection. This evidence of IVM selection suggesting that IVM resistance may be emerging in the Mbonge Sub-Division of Cameroon imposes the need for monitoring.

Key words: Onchocerciasis, Ivermectin, β-tubulin, Resistance, Cameroon.

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Abstract # 36

Soil Microbial Properties and Soil Nutrient Content Under Exotic and Native Tree Species in Southern Rwanda

1,2 Peter Rwibasira*, 2Francois Xavier Naramabuye, 2Donat Nsabimana and 1Monique Carnol

 1University of Liège, Belgium – Plant and Microbial Ecology; 2University of Rwanda, Rwanda

*Corresponding Author: rwibasira@gmail.com

Erosion has been ranked as the primary cause of soil degradation in Rwanda, a land that has naturally inherited very acidic soils with low contents of organic matter. With its hilly landscape and heavy rainfall, Rwanda loses annually millions of tons of its fertile soil from unprotected slope hills.

Forests plantation seems to be an efficient option, not only for land protection and restoration, but also as a timber and household energy source. Tree species may influence soil quality and soil microbial activity via litter decomposition and root exudation. Although most of these introduced fast growing exotic tree species are now scattered all over the country, their effects on soil microbial processes is unknown. A 200 ha arboretum of Ruhande with various exotic and native tree species was used in this study to assess the impacts of tree species on soil properties. The aims of this study were to investigate (i) the effects of tree species on soil physico-chemical properties, (ii) compare microbial processes under different tree species.

Tree species were selected based on their importance, adaptability throughout the country and relevance to daily use. Soil was sampled in 3 plot replicates per species (grouped into exotic (Exot), agroforestry (Agro), native (Nat) and mixed native species (MNS)) and in each sample 2 horizons (organic and mineral) were taken separately. Samples were analysed for physico-chemical properties (pH, moisture, organic matter content, exchangeable cations) and microbial properties (net N mineralization, potential bacterial and archaeal nitrification, respiration potential, microbial biomass C and N, metabolic quotient)

We observed a higher nutrient content in the thin organic horizon: Ca2+= 5215.3 vs 2396.8 (MNS), 3242.9 vs 507.5 (Exot) mg kg-1 in organic versus mineral respectively. Mean values of pH were 5.1 vs 4.2 (Agro), 5.3 vs 4.7 (MNS), 4.4 vs 3.8 (Exot), and 5.4 vs 4.3 (Nat) in organic versus mineral respectively. Mean values for soil microbial biomass carbon were 1065.2 vs 326.4 (Agro), 1733.4 vs 490.6 (MNS), 1638.7 vs 271.5 (Exot), and 1463.3 vs 267.4 (Nat) µg C g-1 of soil in organic versus mineral horizon respectively. Preliminary analyses indicate higher soil microbial activities and alleviation of soil acidity under native tree species compared to the exotic species. Further results will be presented and discussed.

Key Words: Soil microbial properties; soil nutrient content; native tree species; erosion; forests plantation.

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Abstract # 38

Soil Microbial Properties and Soil Nutrient Content Under Exotic and Native Tree Species in Southern Rwanda

1,2 Peter Rwibasira*, 2Francois Xavier Naramabuye, 2Donat Nsabimana and 1Monique Carnol

 1University of Liège, Belgium – Plant and Microbial Ecology; 2University of Rwanda, Rwanda

*Corresponding Author: rwibasira@gmail.com

Erosion has been ranked as the primary cause of soil degradation in Rwanda, a land that has naturally inherited very acidic soils with low contents of organic matter. With its hilly landscape and heavy rainfall, Rwanda loses annually millions of tons of its fertile soil from unprotected slope hills.

Forests plantation seems to be an efficient option, not only for land protection and restoration, but also as a timber and household energy source. Tree species may influence soil quality and soil microbial activity via litter decomposition and root exudation. Although most of these introduced fast growing exotic tree species are now scattered all over the country, their effects on soil microbial processes is unknown. A 200 ha arboretum of Ruhande with various exotic and native tree species was used in this study to assess the impacts of tree species on soil properties. The aims of this study were to investigate (i) the effects of tree species on soil physico-chemical properties, (ii) compare microbial processes under different tree species.

Tree species were selected based on their importance, adaptability throughout the country and relevance to daily use. Soil was sampled in 3 plot replicates per species (grouped into exotic (Exot), agroforestry (Agro), native (Nat) and mixed native species (MNS)) and in each sample 2 horizons (organic and mineral) were taken separately. Samples were analysed for physico-chemical properties (pH, moisture, organic matter content, exchangeable cations) and microbial properties (net N mineralization, potential bacterial and archaeal nitrification, respiration potential, microbial biomass C and N, metabolic quotient).

We observed a higher nutrient content in the thin organic horizon: Ca2+= 5215.3 vs 2396.8 (MNS), 3242.9 vs 507.5 (Exot) mg kg-1 in organic versus mineral respectively. Mean values of pH were 5.1 vs 4.2 (Agro), 5.3 vs 4.7 (MNS), 4.4 vs 3.8 (Exot), and 5.4 vs 4.3 (Nat) in organic versus mineral respectively. Mean values for soil microbial biomass carbon were 1065.2 vs 326.4 (Agro), 1733.4 vs 490.6 (MNS), 1638.7 vs 271.5 (Exot), and 1463.3 vs 267.4 (Nat) µg C g-1 of soil in organic versus mineral horizon respectively. Preliminary analyses indicate higher soil microbial activities and alleviation of soil acidity under native tree species compared to the exotic species. Further results will be presented and discussed.

Key Words: Soil microbial properties; soil nutrient content; native tree species; erosion; forests plantation.

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Abstract # 39

Effect of Agroecological Practices on Fertility of a Cultivated Tropical Ferigineous Soil of Eastern Burkina Faso

1,2A. Coulibaly*, 2,3E. Hien, 1M. Motelica-Heino, 4S. Bourgerie

1Isto-UMR 7327 Centre de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Universite d’Orleans, France

2Universite Ouaga I Pr Joseph Ki Zerbo, Burkina Faso

3IRD, UMR 210 Ecologie Fonctionnelle & Biogeochimie des Sols & des Agro Ecosystemes, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

4LBLGC INRA, USC1328, Universite d’Orleans, France

*Corresponding author: coulouby@yahoo.fr

The conservation and restoration of degraded agricultural soils in eastern Burkina Faso are two important processes in the context of global change (climate and anthropogenic forcing). The main objective of this study was to understand mechanisms that influence these two processes by analyzing the effect of several agroecological practices (Zaï, stone-rows and compost) on tropical ferigineous soils in the Sudano-Sahelian context.

Field trials were carried out on cultivated plots (sorghum, millet, maize) developed in Zaï (Z) and in stone-rows (SR) with contribution of compost (C) since 2006 on five peasant fields. These treatments were compared with absolute witness (AW) (traditional practices) and also with natural vegetation (NV) soils. The effect of these different agroecological practices on soil biological activity, fine elements, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH and soil microbiological activity was evaluated.

Organic carbon contents were 7.30 mg g-1 soil for Z + SR + C, 6.83 mg.g-1 of soil for SR + C; 5.97 mg.g-1 soil for NV and 4.03 mg g-1 soil for AW. Soil total nitrogen was greater under NV (1.17 mg.g-1 of soil) than agroecological fields (SR+C: 0.57 mg.g-1 of soil; Z+SR+C: 0.56 mg.g-1 of soil) which are also higher than AW (0.17 mg.g-1 of soil). Agroecological practices had the same effect in the pH, available phosphorus (Pa) content and electric conductivity (EC). Additionally, there was a significant difference between agroecological practices and AW for C, N, EC and not for pH and Pa.

Results also showed that agroecological practices have a positive effect on the mineralization activity of soil microorganisms. These differences were confirmed by the Shannon-Weaver and Equitability index. Also, agroecological developments have a positive effect on the soil fertility in eastern Burkina Faso.

Key Words: Agroecology; stone-rows; Zaï; compost; soil biology; fertility

ABOUT THE AUTHORS:

1- COULIBALY ABOUBACAR, PhD student at Universite Ouaga I PR Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Burkin a Faso and Universite d’Orleans, Agropedology and Environment, France.

2- HIEN EDMOND, PhD, Universite Ouaga I PR Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Burkina Faso and Associate Researcher, IRD, UMR 210 Ecologie Fonctionnelle & Biogeochimie des Sols et des Ecosystemes Agropedology

3- MOTELICA-HEINO MICKAEL, PhD ,Universite d’Orleans, ISTO UMR 7327 CNRS-Universite d’Orleans, Biogeochemistry, France

4- BOURGERIE SYLVAIN, PhD, Universite d’Orleans, LBLGC INRA, USC1328- Universite d’Orleans, Microbiology, France.

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Abstract # 40

Genomic Breeding of Orphan Crops for Improved Food Security and Nutrition in Africa: Opportunities, Targets, Applications, and Challenges

Enoch G. Achigan-Dako1, I. Hale2, O.D. Sogbohossou1,3, H. Degbey1, E. Schanz3, R.H. Mumm4, A. Van Deynze5, R. Kahane6, D. This7, Dedeou Tchokponhoue1, Charlotte A. Adje1, Carlos Houdegbe1, W. Abtwe Gebreselassie8, O. Happiness9, L. Akundabweni10, H. Zohoungbogbo1, F. Akohoue1, and J. Sibiya11

1 Laboratory of Genetics, Horticulture and Seed Sciences, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, BP 2549 Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin

2 Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 03824

3 Biosystematics Group, Wageningen University, Postbus 647 6700AP, Wageningen, Netherlands

4 Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801

5 Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, USA, 95616

6 Agricultural Research for Development, CIRAD, Avenue Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France

7 Montpellier SupAgro 2, place Pierre Viala, 34060, Montpellier Cedex 02, France

8 Jimma University, Ethiopia

9 Ebonyi State University, Nigeria

10 Namibia University, Namibia

11 University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, South Africa

With the ever-growing population size, food and nutrition insecurity has become a  bigger challenge in sub-Saharan Africa though the continent is endowed with a rich agricultural diversity that can be valued to overcome hunger and poverty. To this end, radical transformation of a largely underdeveloped agriculture is required over the next decades. In addition, increasing agricultural productivity among resource-poor farmers should go with no or little exacerbation of environmental problems while simultaneously coping with climate change, a critical force driving low agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa.

With the new advance in genomics, new opportunities arise. Genomics is a precise, quick, non-expensive technology that complements classic breeding approaches. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge and use of plant genomics for orphan crops and propose ways forward to implement genomic-enabled breeding to develop high yielding cultivars, pest and disease resistant lines, climate-smart breeding populations. Orphan crops of interest include Amaranthus cruentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa (vegetables), Colocasia esculenta, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (roots), Digitaria exilis (cereal), Synsepalum dulcificum (fruit), Vigna subterranean, and Macrotyloma geocarpum (legumes).

 Major steps in genome-enabled breeding are identified and discussed for each species. Steps include: 1) Understanding the reproductive biology and mating systems that increase genetic gains; 2) Proper definition of breeding objectives and target products in line with farmers and consumers’ needs and to adapt to climate hazards; 3) Inventory of available genetic resources and re-assessing genepool and germplasm for additional collections to increase geographical coverage; 4) Phenotyping and genotyping germplasm for economic and added value traits; 5) Genomic selection and molecular breeding of cultivars to increase accuracy and reduce selection cycle; 6) multi-environmental testing and end-users’ evaluation; and 7) Strengthening crop value chains to increase productivity and utilization.

 With genomic breeding new opportunities in the agribusiness sector will rise up to accelerate the positive transformation of African agriculture.

Key Words: Orphan crops; Molecular breeding; Food and nutrition security; Germplasm; Capacity building; Improved cultivars; Biotic and abiotic stresses.

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Abstract # 41

To Assess Nurse’s Knowledge About Head Injury and Nursing Management of Patient with Head Injury in ICU, CHUK

Carine Higo

Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite de Kigali

Kigali University Teaching Hospital

Email: higoca01@gmail.com

One of the most significant and frequently treated conditions in CHUK and Rwanda is head injury. It is also a serious problem worldwide. If inadequately managed, it leads to death, negative physiological and psychological sequel including the development of chronic neurological syndromes. In a 2014 study, the World Health Organization (WHO) showed that head injury is a critical public health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. It is the second major cause of death worldwide, the incidence of head injury being about 131 cases per 100000 people.

This study explores the differences between knowledge about head injury and knowledge about nursing management of head injury patients in ICU for nurses with different education level and working experience.

A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a quantitative approach was used. 33 ICU nurses in CHUK were given the questionnaires of 20 questions. The findings suggest that nurses with a bachelor’s degree had most knowledge of head injury with a score of 80% compared to those with a diploma and certificate who scored at 75%. Nurses with bachelor were also highest scored at 100% in knowledge about nursing management of head injury patient compared to nurses with diploma who scored 96%, and nurses with certificate who scored 75%. This study also highlighted that nurses who have 1-5 years of experience scored high at 77.7% about knowledge of head injury compared to those who have < 1year and over 5 years working experience who scored 66.6%. Nurses who have 1-5 years and above scored at 100% in knowledge about nursing management of head injury patients compare to nurses who have <1 year of experience who scored at 83.3%.

In conclusion, high education levels improve overall knowledge and working experience increases knowledge of management of head injury patient.

Key words: Head in jury; intensive care unit; nursing management.

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Abstract # 42

 Health Care Technology Training

June Madete

Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

Email: madete.june@ku.ac.ke

Health technologies are considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be essential for ensuring that health systems operate at the level required for sustainable improvement in the health of individuals and populations. Africa lacks the skills needed to design, produce, install, maintain, manage and upgrade health technologies, leaving it reliant on foreign technical expertise. It is imperative that Africa develop a strong health technology research and development base, grounded in an understanding of the African context, to support needs-based health technology innovation for better health on the continent.

The need to produce skilled biomedical engineers is commonly recognized but it differs depending on the interest of the institutions involved. For instance, most of the early efforts in Africa seem to have focused on the training of technicians that could maintain medical devices in good working conditions. Technicians and technologists play a pivotal role in maintenance and safe use of medical devices, however, there is a demand for a more comprehensive approach to skills training and development of biomedical engineering human capital. These programmes cover a wide range of engineering, medical science, software programming and entrepreneurship courses, among others. In general, these courses are specifically designed to develop a broad-base of requisite skills in planning, procurement, designing, installing, commissioning, maintaining, decommissioning and safely disposing of biomedical devices.

The discipline of biomedical engineering has the potential to play a strong developmental role in Africa by producing graduates skilled in the development of health technologies who can make a contribution towards enhancing health care. The challenge is to develop a strategy to get Biomedical Engineering adopted and recognized as a strong Engineering field in East Africa by the Policy makers as vital and necessary specialization for the region.

Key Words: Health care technology; design; production; installation; maintenance; management; upgrade.

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Abstract # 43

Effect of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extract on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Immunomodulatory Activity of Lympho-Monocytoid Cells and PBMCs from Healthy Donors

1Marina Potestà**, 1Antonella Minutolo**, 1Angelo Gismondi, 1Lorena Canuti, 2Maurice Kenzo, 3Marco Cirilli, 4Sandro Grelli, 3Rosario Muleo, 1Antonella Canini, 1Vittorio Colizzi and 1Carla Montesano*

1Department of Biology, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy

2SOCOPOMO S/C 46 P.A. de Lingang Dschange, Cameroon

3Department of Agriculture, Forestry, Nature and Energy, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy;

4Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Rome, Italy.

**These authors contributed equally to this work

*Corresponding Author: montesano@uniroma2.it

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) is one of the most distributed species of Moringaceae family, which is also widely used in African traditional medicine. Different studies documented anti-inflammatory, immune-stimulatory and pro-apoptotic properties of MO leaf extract. Considering the limited data available about MO mature seeds, we evaluated, in lymphoid and monocytoid cells and PBMCs from healthy donors (HD PBMCs), the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of different MO mature seed aqueous extracts (MOE). We also investigated the possible effects of MOE treatment in CD4+ T cells differentiation mechanism and in immune restore.

Our results clearly demonstrated which MOE reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in HD PBMCs. Recent works have reported that miRNAs derived from plant foods are also functional in mammals, regulating the expression of host genes and, for this reason, the effects of miRNAs extracted from MOE on human cell proliferation and death regulation was also investigated.

We demonstrated the ability of MO miRNA pool to induce Bcl2 and SIRT1 mediated apoptosis in tumor cells, as also performed by total MOE. In addition, MOE treatment had immunomodulatory effects in PBMCs, changing the differentiation process of CD4+ T cells in activated PBMCs, and restoring CD3+CD4+ subtype in PBMCs exposed to a chemotherapeutic (cyclophosphamide).

In conclusion, MOE was able to regulate proliferation, apoptosis and immune response in different ways in healthy cells in contrast to cancer ones and our results suggested that MO effects were due to the combination of different components, especially miRNAs.

Key Words: Moringa oleifera; proliferation; apoptosis; immunomodulatory activity; lympho-monocytoid cells; PBMCs; African traditional medicine.

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Abstract # 44

 Insight into the Urban Growth-Driven Degradation of Green Spaces in Lubumbashi (D.R. Congo): Spatial Analysis and Perception of Local Experts

 *Yannick Useni Sikuzani1,  Maréchal Justine2, François Malaisse2, César Nkuku Khonde3, Jan Bogaert2, Grégory Mahy2 and François Munyemba Kankumbi1

 1 Ecology, Restoration Ecology and Landscape Research Unit, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Lubumbashi,; CCPGU—Centre de Compétences en Planification et Gestion Urbaine, University of Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

2Biosystems Engineering Department, Biodiversity and Landscape Unit, University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Liege, Belgium.

3Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, Department of History, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

 * Corresponding Author Email: yannickuseni@gmail.com

 In urban areas, ecosystem services, ranging from environmental to aesthetical benefits for population, mostly rely on green spaces. In the city of Lubumbashi (DR Congo) however, the flourishing mining activities in recent years have led to an accelerated but uncontrolled urbanization, posing serious threat to green spaces in the city. Hence, questions over the place of green spaces in providing ecosystem services in Lubumbashi have been raised. Likewise, the degree of green spaces degradation, which could potentially reflect the likelihood of green spaces to provide ecosystem services, remained also unknown for the city. The present work was undertaken as an attempt to fill these gaps, with the ultimate aim to laying foundation for better policies of green spaces management in Lubumbashi. To get a better picture of the degree of green spaces degradation in the city, a municipality-scale analysis of spatial structure of green spaces was supported by data of ecosystem services as perceived by a group of local experts in thirty-eight green spaces along the urban-rural gradient.

 Our results, based on data extended on a 25-years period of observation (1989-2014), revealed a common pattern in all the municipalities of the city, showing a regressive dynamic of green spaces in favor of built-up, which in addition to a rapid demographic pressure, is exacerbated by a lack of appropriate program of green spaces preservation. Attrition, fragmentation and dissection of green spaces patches on one side, and creation as well as aggregation of built-up patches, on the other, have been identified as the predominant spatial processes of landscape dynamics in different municipalities. Data of appreciation of ecosystem services by local experts showed marked variations on remnant and introduced patches of green spaces along the urban-rural gradient. In general, compared to other zones, the urban zone was deemed as providing lesser ecosystem services, presenting green spaces of reduced acreages, most often characterized by anthropogenic vegetation. Altogether, to enhance the ecosystem services of green spaces in the city of Lubumbashi, the results of our investigations suggest a land management taking into account both the socioeconomic context of population and the degree of urbanization of each municipality of the city.

 Key Words: Ecological functionalities; green space; urban ecology; urban-rural gradient; spatial pattern.

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Abstract # 45

Artemisia Afra, Flagship of African Medicinal Plants – A Review of Clinical Trials

Pierre Lutgen

IFBV-BELHERB, Niederanven, Luxembourg

Author’s email: lutgenp@gms.lu

Some plants of the Artemisia family like Artemisia annua are renowned worldwide. One of its molecules, artemisinin, has been extensively used in antimalarial drugs. But, like all other monotherapies, it has led to resistances not only in South-East Asia, but also in at least 10 African countries. Artemisia afra is an indigenous, perennial plant growing from the Cape to Addis Ababa and Kinshasa.  Its use has been described in the traditional medical literature of these countries against many diseases including malaria.

The immunostimulating and anti-HIV properties of Artemisia afra were first described by Fr Vanderkooy in  2012. This has been confirmed in 2013 by C. Tchandema and P. Lutgen in another paper. In malaria-infected patients, Artemisia afra increased CD4+ and eliminated trophozoites. More recent results from large scale (1000 patients), double blind, randomized clinical trials by Munyangi and coworkers in Maniema RDC are breaking news comparing A. annua and A. afra with ACTs (Coartem and ASAQ). For all the parameters tested, herbal treatment was significantly better than ACTs: Faster clearance for fever and parasitemia, absence of parasites on day 28 for 99.5 % of the Artemisia treatments, and 79.5% only for the ACT treatments. More importantly, there was even the observation of the total absence of gametocytes after 7 days treatment with the herb. The efficiency was equivalent for A. annua and A. afra. The trial included 465 children from 2-5 years of age.

In parallel with the clinical trials against malaria, the above authors have completed another large-scale randomized, double blind trial against schistosomiasis, comparing Artemisia vs Praziquantel. The treatment efficiency was 97 % in the Artemisia arm and 71% in the Praziquantel arm. Very impressive is the fact that the Artemisia treatment led to an unexpected almost complete absence of eggs in feces after 2 months.

So far, only symptomatic patients have been treated and the question remains open whether Artemisia plants had also prophylactic properties. Munyangi has now completed a first randomized trial with 2×100 primary school children in the province of Maniema. The objective was to study the impact of a prophylactic treatment of 3 cups/week of A. annua infusion. The results are overwhelming. In the second and third month of the treatment, parasitemia and gametocytemia have completely disappeared in the Artemisia arm, but in the control arm the parasite carriage remains constant over the 3 months.

The same team now has completed trials against Buruli ulcer, with extraordinary results. The treatment consisted in the administration per os of an A. afra decoction during 14 days and the application of a poultice containing an A afra extract during 28 days. These produces were from “Mother Nature” in Burundi. A number of 21 patients completed the full treatment, some others were lost from sight. Those who took the complete treatment were totally cured, without any need for surgical intervention. No remanent limitation in movements or other sequelae were noticed as it often happens after antibiotic treatment. No remaining mycobacteria could be detected after the treatment.

The prescriptions of WHO provide (WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1) that there is no requirement for pre-clinical toxicity testing if a substance or plant has been used over three or more generations for a specific health related or medicinal purpose.  The European Medicines Agency (EMA) also provides (DTHMP directive) that herbal medicines may be approved in a simplified procedure if traditional use is documented  for at least 10 years.

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Abstract # 46

 Early Childhood Tooth Buds Removal Practice (“Ibyinyo”): A Preventable African Health Problem

 Muhire Valens, Nsabimana Evariste, Uwayezu Donat*, Eleana Stoufi, Mohammed Razzaque

University of Rwanda-School of Dentistry

*Corresponding email address: Uwayezu Donat <uwadonatus@gmail.com>

Tooth buds removal (“ibyinyo”) is a traditional practice of removing the developing tooth buds, typically done on the infant by traditional healers who believe that removing those tooth buds will reduce the fever and diarrhea of the affected children. This practice is mostly performed in non-sterile conditions using basic sharp instrument. It is most prevalent in Africa, especially in East-African countries including Rwanda. The complications associated with this practice include septicemia, or other blood born diseases like HIV, and hepatitis. We discuss a case of a 10 years old female patient who presented with malformed canine teeth resulting from tooth buds extraction done in her early childhood.

 This is a case study. After a through clinical evaluation of the patient, a treatment plan was prepared to treat her complications related to early tooth buds extraction.

 In our patient, we found malformed enamel, elongated permanent right maxillary canine, and permanent mandibular left canine teeth. She also presented with a retained (primary) left maxillary lateral incisor tooth, and missing a left maxillary canine tooth. In addition, ectopic eruption of left maxillary central incisor tooth, and left mandibular canine tooth with crown malformation and missing permanent right mandibular canine tooth were also noted. These complications resulted from tooth buds removal that the patient had experienced in her early childhood. As a treatment, we reshaped her malformed right maxillary and left lower mandibular canine teeth, using composite materials, in order to improve her esthetic.

 Failure to sucking, vomiting, longstanding fever and diarrhea are the most common symptoms associated with infant’s tooth buds removal. Therefore, educating parents through community-based campaigns on detrimental consequences of early childhood tooth buds removal through ibyinyo practice might be helpful to eradicate this harmful and unnecessary practice.

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Abstract # 47

 Vitamin D Levels in Mother Baby Pairs: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study in a Rwandan Tertiary Hospital

 Florent Rutagaramaab, Raymond Mugangab, Diane Staffordc, Katja Konradd, Raissa

Tetelib, Muhammed Semakulae, Musafite Aimablef, Paul Laigongg and Leon Mutesab

 aDepartment of Pediatrics, Rwanda Military Hospital

bCollege of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda

cHarvard Medical School, Boston Children Hospital, Boston, US

dUniversity of Cologne and Elisabeth-Hospital Essen, Germany

eRwanda Biomedical Centre-Ministry of Rwanda

gButare University Teaching Hospital

gGertrude’s Garden Children’s Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya

 Sunlight contributes up to 90% of vitamin D production but pregnant women, especially in the final trimester, may experience vitamin D deficiency. This study aimed at exploring

Vitamin D status in mother baby pair and associated factors.

 This is a cross-sectional prospective study conducted on mother baby pairs at one of the Rwandan referral hospitals. Mothers coming for their last ante-natal consultation, in labour, and neonates referred from other centres before 24 hours of life were included. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done to evaluate the association between demographic, clinical and biological data and 25 Hydroxy vitamin D level, which are considered as predictors and outcome variable.

 The majority of neonates (65%) and 38% of mothers were found to be vitamin D deficient. Having had a meal rich in vitamin D in the last 24 hours and in the last week were associated to adequate vitamin D levels. There is a strong positive correlation between maternal and neonate 25 Hydroxy vitamin D levels (r= 0.760).

 In conclusion, we observed a high rate of vitamin D deficiency in mother baby pairs. Further studies are needed to explain the cause of vitamin D deficiency in sunny regions.

 Keywords: Vitamin D; neonates; pregnant women; Rwanda Military Hospital.

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Abstract # 48

Prevention and Management of Non Communicable Diseases: A Policy Perspective

1Dr.  Judith Waswa*,  2Dr. Louise Ngugi and 3Angelica Mweni1

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Technical University of Kenya

2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Karatina University, Kenya.

* Corresponding Author Email: judiwaswa07@yahoo.com

Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are currently a leading cause of poor quality of life and death globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported an increase in the prevalence of NCDs in developing countries in the recent past. This trend is likely to impede development and retard the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This trend calls for concerted efforts to avert the situation. NCDs are driven by the negative effects of globalization, for example, unfair trade and irresponsible marketing, rapid and unplanned urbanization and increasingly sedentary lives. They are further exacerbated by other factors including tobacco use and availability, and cost and marketing of foods high in salt, fat and sugar. Although individual efforts like lifestyle change are required in fighting the immediate causes of NCDs, the underlying causes are well beyond individual efforts. Governments have a responsibility of protecting their citizens from emerging health issues by enacting and enforcing appropriate laws.

This paper analyses the efforts made by governments in the East African region towards prevention and control of NCDs. Although all the governments have put in place policy frameworks for prevention and control of NCDs, gaps still exists. Some of the policies also remain archive documents and others public relations documents. This paper brings into focus the importance of legislation in prevention and control of NCDs.

Key Words: Non-Communicable Diseases; globalization, unfair trade; irresponsible marketing; sedentary lives, policies

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Abstract # 49

 Non-Communicable Diseases – The Elephant in the Room

1Dr.  Judith Waswa*, 1Susan Wairegi and 2Lydia Asiko

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Technical University of Kenya

2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Karatina University, Kenya.

* Corresponding Author Email: judiwaswa07@yahoo.com

Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes and cancer have been listed as the leading causes of death worldwide; they hamper development hence undermining the attainment development goals. Furthermore, they exacerbate social inequality. It is estimated that more than 60% of all deaths worldwide are caused by them. NCDs had been perceived as diseases of the affluent, however, the prevalence in developing countries has increased over the years. In 2008, it was reported that four out of five NCD deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries, an increase from what was reported earlier. According to a WHO report, NCD mortality rates in Africa are rising faster than anywhere else in the world. This paper reviews the causes, consequences and prevention strategies of NCDs.

 The burden of NCDs in developing countries is driven by the negative effects of globalization, for example, unfair trade and irresponsible marketing, rapid and unplanned urbanization and, increasingly, sedentary lives. People in developing countries eat foods with higher levels of total energy. Increasing NCD levels are influenced by many factors including tobacco use and availability, consumption of foods high in salt, fat and sugar. A considerable proportion of global marketing targets children and adolescents as well as women in developing countries to promote tobacco smoking and consumption of ‘junk’ food and alcohol. Developing countries also experience rapid and unplanned urbanization, which change people’s way of living through more exposure to the shared risk factors. NCDs are exacerbated in urban areas by changes in diet and physical activity, exposure to air pollutants (including tobacco smoke) and harmful use of alcohol.

 Yet, NCDs are preventable and we need to talk about them everywhere and every time to help avert the menace. Lifestyle change is the panacea to NCD prevention and management. Cessation of smoking, healthy diets and exercise are listed as some of the important strategies. Early this year the government of Rwanda declared a car free day as part of a campaign strategy for prevention of NCDs. Governments must take up the elephant by its horns and sensitize people in addition to enacting legislative laws with an aim of preventing and managing the diseases. Control of these diseases will be a major milestone in achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).

 Key Words: NCDs, development; quality of life; lifestyle.

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Abstract # 50

 Phylogeny of Plant Calcium and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases (CCaMKs) and Functional Analyses of Tomato CCaMK in Disease Resistance

 Ji-Peng Wang1†, *Jean-Pierre Munyampundu1,3†, You-Ping Xu2 , and Xin-Zhong Cai1

 1Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 2 Centre of Analysis and Measurement, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; 3 College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.

These authors contributed equally to this work

 *Corresponding Author:  mpundupeter@hotmail.com

 Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a member of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase superfamily and is essential to microbe-plant symbiosis. To date, the distribution of CCaMK gene in plants has not yet been completely understood, and its function in plant disease resistance remains unclear. In this study, we systemically identified the CCaMK genes in the genomes of 44 plant species in Phytozome, and analyzed the function of tomato CCaMK (SlCCaMK) in resistance to various pathogens.

 CCaMKs in 18 additional plant species were identified, yet the absence of CCaMK gene in green algae and cruciferous species was confirmed. Sequence analysis of full-length CCaMK proteins from 44 plant species demonstrated that plant CCaMKs are highly conserved across all domains. Most of the important regulatory amino acids are conserved throughout all sequences, with the only notable exception being observed in N-terminal autophosphorylation site corresponding to Ser 9 in the Medicago truncatula CCaMK. CCaMK gene structures are similar, mostly containing six introns with a phase profile of 200200 and the exception was only noticed at the first exons. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CCaMK lineage is likely to have diverged early from a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) gene in the ancestor of all nonvascular plant species. The SlCCaMK gene was widely and differently responsive to diverse pathogenic stimuli. Furthermore, knock-down of SlCCaMK reduced tomato resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 and decreased H2O2 accumulation in response to Pst DC3000 inoculation.

 Our results reveal that SlCCaMK positively regulates disease resistance in tomato via promoting H2O2 accumulation and CCaMK genes may hold promise for durable resistance to necrotrophic plant diseases.

 Keywords: Calcium and Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase (CCaMK), genome-wide identification; phylogeny; resistance; hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); tomato

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Abstract # 51

The Impact of Cultural Tourism in Enhancing the Community to Participate in Wildlife Conservation in Volcanoes National Park

 *Kibogo A. and Kyamujara W.

 1College of Agriculture, Animal sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources Management, University of Rwanda

 Corresponding Author: aliwinnie2@gmail.com

Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism and it is one of the largest industries concerned with the country or region’s, especially its arts. It generally focuses on traditional communities who have diverse customs, unique form of art, and distinct social practices, which basically distinguish them from other types and forms of culture. In tourism, cultural villages are relatively new attractions which have opened opportunities for the advancement of cultural and heritage tourism in developing countries. However, there is a lack of research pertaining to information regarding the contribution of cultural villages in wildlife conservation for tourism.

 This paper aims to examine the contribution of cultural villages in enhancing the community to participate in wildlife conservation, and how cultural tourism improves the livelihood of the community involved in cultural activities around Volcanoes National Park.

 The research was conducted at iby’iwacu cultural village; questionnaires were personally administered to people and interviewed them face to face, and also used site observation. Basing on findings, the research was successful in that we found that cultural villages play a big role in wildlife conservation around Volcanoes National Park and also do contribute in the development of the livelihoods surrounding national parks.   

 Key words: Cultural tourism, local communities, participation, wildlife conservation

 About the Authors:

 Kyamujara W. is a final year student in the Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources Management at the University of Rwanda. She has interest to develop her career in Wildlife Conservation and has been participating in quite related fields training within Rwanda and across the region.

 Andrew K. is an Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resource Management at University of Rwanda (UR) where he is engaged in teaching undergraduate students. He has a background in Veterinary sciences (animal Health) and a Master degree in Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Agriculture with specialization in Wildlife Management and Conservation. He has attended a number of trainings related to his career and is interested in researches related to wildlife conservation,  and community-based natural resource management.

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Abstract # 52

Biomonitoring And Zonal Cartography Of Loxodonta Africana Cyclotys (Proboscidea, Mammalia) Activity In The Era-Congo/Mai-Ndomde Redd+ Concession In Democratic Republic Of The Congo

Mathieu Bolaa Bokamba1, Anatole Bokolo Bola1, *Gédéon N. Bongo2, Pius T. Mpiana2, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua2

  1. Mai-Ndombe REDD+ project, Ecosystem Restorate Associate, Wildlife Works, Inongo, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  2. Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190 Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

* Corresponding author: jpngbolua@unikin.ac.cd

 The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a biodiversity hotspot. It is amongst one of the most important fauna reserves either in Africa or in the world. Yet, its fauna is dangerously threatened through poaching upsurge and smuggling. Worldwide, studies show that a certain number of victim animal species is notching up on the red list of threatened species of IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). This is the case of African elephants whose habitat is more and more restricted because of demographic pressure and human activities. In order to protect this natural ecological inheritance and its habitat, a scientific assignment was performed some months ago in this forest zone for confirming the existence of these elephants.

 This prospective study aimed to confirm the existence of elephants in this geographical area as a main objective. The specific objectives of this study were the direct and/or indirect observation in order to collect the presence indexes of elephants in this zone on the one hand and on the other hand to elaborate the map indicating the activity zones. Several elephant indexes (fresh and recent droppings, tracks and berries) were observed. The activity zone of elephants is located out of as well as in the concession ERA-CONGO/MAI-NDOMDE REDD+. Therefore, the forest block of Ntombe Nzale grouping (mainly Ngeleku, Olingi-oyei and Ilee-Makaba villages) in the Mai-Ndombe province constitutes a priority zone for the biodiversity conservation.

Key words: Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Mai Ndombe Province; Ntombe Nzale ; biodiversity conservation ; Loxodonta africana cyclotys.

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Abstract # 53

Natural Products and Molecules in Drug Discovery: Umuravumba -One of the Most Popular Medicinal Plants in Rwanda

Dr. Jean-Olivier Zirimwabagabo

Research Associate, Chemistry Department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK and Visiting Researcher, Department of Biothenologies, INES- Ruhengeri, Musanze, Rwanda

 Email: j.zirimwabagabo@sheffield.ac.uk

 Researchers in the pharmaceutical industry are used to screen natural products in high-throughput assays against molecular targets. It has long been considered that natural product structures have the characteristics of high chemical diversity, biochemical specificity, and other precious molecular properties that make them favorable as drugs or lead structures for drug discovery thereby providing a good inspiration in medicinal chemistry. The application of bioactive naturals as isolated and characterized compounds to modern drug discovery and development started only in the 19th century. Aspirin, the most common used drug against headache, was chemically modified from a well-known natural product [1] Quinine, which was itself used worldwide against malaria [2]. Due to the limit of availability and difficulties of extraction of Nature’s products, organic chemists have turned their attention to the organic synthesis of these products. However, some compounds have been found very complex and costing money for their organic synthesis. Obviously, natural products will remain an extremely important source of medicinal agents.

Inspired by the use of Tetradenia riparia (called in Rwandese: “Umuravumba”) in traditional medicine in Rwanda, we sought to investigate and understand the role of different active molecules in this plant’s extract for their curative properties [3]. It has been reported that different molecules in Umuravumba such as desacetylumuravumbolide or Sandaracopimaradiene-7,18-diol showed a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cytotoxicity against human tumour cells, and antimicrobial and antifungal activity [4]. From 2014, our current target is haemorrhoids. The pomade Muravikim made from the extract of Umuravumba was found to have a positive effect when applied to haemorrhoids patients [5].

Key words: Drug discovery; natural products; Umurawumba; haemorrhoids.

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Abstract # 54

 Blend of Essential Oils for the Prevention or Alternative/Complementary Treatment of Neurological Disorders

 *Solofoniaina Razafimahefa1-2, Emmanuel Randrianarivo1 and Filippo Maggi3

1 Institut Malgache de Recherches Appliquées, Avarabohitra Itaosy, lot AVB 77, BP 3833, Antananarivo – Madagascar

2 Institut d’Enseignement Supérieur Antsirabe Vakinankaratra, Université d’Antananarivo, Antananarivo – Madagascar

3 School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.

*Corresponding Author: solofoniain@moov.mg

Epilepsy, convulsive seizures and headaches are the most common chronic neurological disorders affecting respectively 5 to 10 and 15 to 30 out of every 1000 persons. They remain a major public health problem, not only because of their health implications but also for their social, cultural, psychological and economic consequences. Nearly 80% of people with these diseases reside in developing countries. Cerebral complications of infectious diseases are one main cause of epilepsy, migraines and in general brain disorders in Africa. One serious problem in low-income countries is the poor availability and high cost of medication.

Extensive laboratory work and clinical studies have led to the formulation of blended essential oils with ethnomedical applications into three related phytomedicines for alternative or complementary treatments of convulsions, migraines and strong agitation.

Traditionally, dry leaves of Myrothamnus moschatus are smoked like a cigar to treat convulsion and migraines. Freshly collected arial parts of Myrothamnus moschatus were therefore extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil obtained was analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. In parallel, the analysis of the chemical composition of active and passive smoke was performed by using the solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) technique. The most striking difference was the presence of limonene in the smoke of Myrothamnus moschatus while in very small quantities in dry leaves and essential oil of the plant. Based on these results, a blend of essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus and Citrus sp was formulated under the trade name Fanalarofy® for the prevention or alternative/complementary treatment of convulsions.

 On the other hand, leaves of Cinnamosma madagascariensis are traditionally used in fumigation to treat convulsion with strong agitation. A blend of essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus and Cinnamosma madagascariensis under the trade name Fanalasarotra® was also formulated to treat strong agitation.

 Further, an essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus was formulated under the trade name Fanalanendo® for the prevention or alternative/complementary treatment of migraine.

These medicinal products are innovative for being culturally accepted, markedly affordable, rapidly acting and easy to administer via inhalation.

Key words: Essential oil; limonene ; brain disorders ; Myrothamnus moschatus

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Abstract # 55

Assessment of Anti-Mycobacterial Activity of Some Selected Congolese Medicinal Plants

 *Gédéon N. Bongo1,2, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua1, Joseph Malakalinga2, Aaron Pambu1, Fabrice Mwanza1, Gisèle Makengo1, Théophile Mbemba1 and Rudovick Kazwala3

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box. 190, Kinshasa XI, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology, P.O. Box. 319, Chuo kikuu, College of Veterinary and Medical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

3Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, College of Veterinary and Medical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

*Corresponding author: gedeonbongo@gmail.com

 Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that kills approximately 3 million people annually worldwide. The emergence of multi-drug resistance, extensive drug resistance and lengthy therapy reduce the patient compliance and therefore comprise control strategies.

 In this study, the leaves of Terminalia ivorensis, Carapa procera, Fagara macrophylla,, Anacardium occidentale, Ficus spp. and Drepanoalpha were extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order to assess the anti-mycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium tuberculosis spp. on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar using a qualitative approach.

 The activity was determined as to whether there was growth or not and the crude extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals namely alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, total polyphenols and saponins.

 These extracts were found to be active against mycobacteria culture strains in Middlebrook 7H10 agar where there was inhibition of the growth than in Lowenstein-Jensen slants where only the methanolic extract showed good activity on both strains. The presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthocyanins, quinones known to be of medicinal importance point out a possible source for anti-mycobacterial agents to address the problem of multidrug resistance.

 The in vitro findings of this study provide a partial support for the use of these plants in the management of various infectious diseases as lead to drug discovery and should be reiterated and recommend for a clinical trial using an animal model.

 Keywords: Tuberculosis; anti-mycobacterial activity; medicinal plants; phytochemicals.

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Abstract # 56

Assessment of Elephantiasis and Associated Risk Factors Among People Living in Musanze

*A.Y. Uwitonze1, N. A. Mugemangango1, T. Bishyizehagari2, E. Bizimana1, T. Habyarimana1, P. Ndishimye1 and L. Mutesa3

1Biomedical Laboratory Sciences Department, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, INES- Ruhengeri, Musanze, Rwanda, E-mail: uwitonzeangeyvette@gmail.com

2Imidido People’s Organization, Musanze, Rwanda

3University of Rwanda

 * Corresponding Author Email: uwitonzeangeyvette@gmail.com

 Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. LF and Podoconiosis aere two major types of elephantiasis, which live in the lymphatic system and can cause extreme swelling of the extremities and genitals. It is estimated that 4 million people are affected by podoconiosis worldwide and 5 to 10% of the population in endemic area. These patients are not only physically disabled, but suffer mental, social and financial losses contributing to stigma and poverty. Currently, 947 million people in 54 countries are living in areas that require preventive chemotherapy to stop the spread of infection. There is a lack of updated data/information about the prevalence of elephantiasis in Rwanda.

 This study has tried to respond to the following question: What are the causal agents of elephantiasis among patients attending Imidido People’s Organization? A high prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and/or podoconiosis could be found among patients attending Imidido People’s Organization.

 In this study, 119 patients attending Imidido people’s organization were involved. The blood samples from patients were collected during the night and stained with giemsa to be analyzed under microscopy. Podoconiosis was confirmed when a negative result for Wuchereria bancrofti was found under microscopy, then, a structured questionnaire was used to assess associated risk factors. Hygienic behavior associated with the disease was also considered.

 In this phase of the study, results show 100% podoconiosis. Females were more affected than males with a prevalence of (68.1%) and (31.1%) respectively. A high prevalence of podoconiosis was observed among patients ≥60 years old, illiterate and farmers being mostly affected. Rugarama and Kinoni sectors were the most affected among assessed sectors.

 This study has evidenced that there is a vicious cycle of poverty and podoconiosis. A deep analysis of volcanic soil will be performed to explore, confirm and establish the relationship between podoconiosis and volcanic soil in Musanze, Northern Rwanda.

 Key Words: Lymphatic filariasis; podoconiosis; risk factors; Imidido People’s Organization.

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Abstract # 57

Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections – Improved Traditional Medicines in the Case of a Goat Antiparasitic

 Victor Okombe Embeya*, Gaël Nzuzi Mavungu and Célestin Pongombo Shongo

University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

Email of corresponding author: vokombe@yahoo.fr

The importance of gastrointestinal parasitic infections is due both to their frequency and the severity of the disorders they cause. Parasitism is one of the causes of the brake on the profitability of goat farms. Breeders thus have to face this thorny challenge which constitutes a real handicap to the development of this breeding. The high costs of interventions and veterinary medicines as well as the low incomes of livestock farmers are attracting increasing interest and demand for traditional medicines.

 Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys and laboratory analysis on Vitex thomasii De Wild have revealed its safety and confirmed its antiparasitic properties on goats. The use of indices of credibility has permitted to choose Vitex thomasii De Wild amongst many other recipes recorded in 2011 in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This recipe has permitted the production of an antiparasitic improved tradtional medicine.

The determination of dose and conditioning, unknown in traditional medicine, followed by good manufacturing practices has led to easy administration and conservation of phytomedicine.

Key words: Improved traditional medicine; gastrointestinal parasitic; goat antiparasitic; Lubumbashi

ABOUT THE AUTHORS:

VICTOR OKOMBE EMBEYA, DVM, Master in University Pedagogy, PhD is a Professor at the University of LubumbashiVeterinary pharmacology.

GAEL NZUZI MAVUNGU , DVM is Assistant, Veterinary pharmacology.

CELESTIN PONGOMBO SHONGO, DVM, PhD is Ordinary Professor at the University of Lubumbashi, Traditional Medicine.

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Abstract # 58

 A Clinical Decision Support System for Tye 2 Diabetes Associated with HIV in Low Income Countries/ Case of Rwanda

 Nishimwe Aurore

 1University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kigali 3286, Rwanda

 Author’s email: aurorehirwa@gmail.com

 Since the advent of Information and Communication Technologies in determining complex transformations in human activities, there were also significant changes in the health area. With decisive impact on the practical professional exercise, Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) are one of the highlights, especially those developed for use in mobile devices.

 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons may be at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus because of viral co-infection and adverse effects of treatment. Also, the reasons of deaths in developing countries are shifting from communicable diseases towards non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like type2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to develop and implement a clinical decision support system, aiming to support decision purposes in the treatment and management of HIV patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

 It is a groundbreaking exploratory study which emerges as a way of contributing to the qualification of health professionals working in primary care. User access will be free of charge, and in addition to the general registration data, it will require the identification of users’ location by the National Register of Health Establishments. The application will provide an updated knowledge base that will guide treatment and management of HIV patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, also offering examples of related clinical cases, providing conceptual support material on type 2 diabetes mellitus. The application data will be stored offline, allowing database synchronization whenever internet access is available, aiming to make a report of the epidemiological map of diabetes 2 associated with HIV cases in Rwanda.

 Key Words: Clinical Decision Support System; Diabetes Type 2, HIV, Rwanda

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

AURORE NISHIMWE, PhD,  is an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Rwanda and a CARTA PhD Fellow. She has experience in health information technology and has keen interest in eHealth and telemedicine, health informatics and public health.

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Abstract # 59

NRLP3 inflammasome/Caspase-1 Inhibition by Herbal Recipes Extracts Traditionally Used in Rwanda for Asthma Treatment

*Jean Claude Didelot TOMANI1,2, Lea Olive Tchouate Gainkam3, Marie Jeanne Mukazayire2, Raymond Muganga1, Michel Frederich4 and Jacob Suoupgui3

1 University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Pharmacy; Kigali-Rwanda

2 National Industrial Research and Development Agency, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Industries Division; Huye-Rwanda

3Laboratory of Embryology and Biotechnology, Institute of Biology and Molecular Medicine, Free University of Brussel, Gosselies-Belgium

4University of Liège, Natural and Synthetic Drugs Research Center, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Avenue de l’Hôpital 1, B36, B-4000 Liège, Belgium

* Corresponding author e-mail: tomanfils@yahoo.fr

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease which affects more than 300 million people worldwide (1). Depending on the inflammatory patterns involved, there are two main subtypes of asthma, the eosinophilic and the nucleophilic (2). Corticosteroids are widely used as a main treatment of the disease despite their several harmful side effects. Moreover, some patients showed also resistance to the treatment mainly those with inflammasomes and IL-1beta in their subtums (3). Inflammasomes are multimeric proteins responsible for the upregulation of IL-1beta and IL-18 into their mature forms through the activation of caspase-1 (2). In Rwanda, some traditional healers claim to treat asthma with plant-based recipes, though there is no scientific proof so far.

Our study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory effect of plant recipes used in Rwanda against asthma in order to select potential candidates for further characterization of the active compounds.

Plants were collected from an ethnobotanical survey, shade-dried and powdered. Recipes were then reconstituted according to the traditional healers’s guidelines and submitted to water and methanol-dichloromethane extraction. The toxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated on THP-1 derived macrophages using Cell-Titer Glo assay (Promega) and on Xenopus embryonic development using FETAX. The anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extracts was carried out using the Caspase-Glo® 1 Inflammasome assay on THP-1 -derived macrophages.

The organic solvent extraction yield was higher than the aqueous form. Both organic and aqueous extracts showed more than 95% of cell viability up to 200 µg/ml except for one extract that inhibited 25% of the cell viability.  Some extracts have also shown dose-dependent effect on Xenopus embryos development. At 200µg/ml, aqueous extract causes embryos death after 5h of treatment while the 100µg/ml induced the gastrulation delay and stopped the embryos development at the neurula. However, the 50µg/ml had no effect on embryos development as compared to non-treated embryos. Plant extracts inhibited caspase-1 activation in a dose-dependent manner. Some extracts were more efficient (up to 90% inhibition) than the commercial reference inhibitor.

In conclusion, taken together, Xenopus embryos are more sensitive to the studied plant extracts than THP-1-derived macrophages cells. This study has also shown that the inhibition of inflammasome/caspase-1 is one of several key mechanisms of action in asthma treatment by tested traditional medecines. Some recipes are strong candidates to the treatment of asthma and other-inflammasome-mediated diseases. Further investigations are needed to characterize active molecules.

Key Words: Asthma; medicinal plants; Rwanda; inflammasome/caspase-1; Xenopus embryos

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Abstract # 60

Antioxidant Potential of Black Tea Cultivars Produced in Rwanda

Nyandawi Jean Baptiste* and Muganga Raymond

University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Medicine and Pharmacy

*Corresponding author: jabaptisten@yahoo.com

Rwanda produces one of the best quality teas in the world and tea, mostly black tea, is one of Rwanda`s main cash crops (1). However, few studies have been so far done on Rwandese black teas for its potential benefits, especially antioxidant activity (2,3).

The present study aimed at determining the antioxidant activity of Rwandese highland black teas available on Rwandese market and comparing with one black tea from Belgium (Lipton). Crude tea extracts were obtained by ethanol 50 % extraction and were powdered by evaporation to dryness under reduced pressure at 40°C. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS test method (4) and gallic acid was used as reference. The values of IC50 for each black tea have been determined and also p-values calculated using GraphPad Prism V to compare the antioxidant activity from different black tea cultivars.

The results showed that all plant samples inhibited ABTS radical activity in a dose-dependent manner. The best antioxidant activity was found for Rubaya tea (200.8 µg/ml) followed by Highland tea (271.4 µg/ml), Sorwathe tea (363.9 µg/ml), Damarara tea (417.2 µg/ml) and Lipton (Belgian) tea (526 µg/ml). However, the difference between Rwandese teas was not statistically significant (p-value > 0.05). Similarly, the antioxidant activity difference between Rwandese teas and the Belgian one was not statistically significant as well.

Rwandese black teas have significant levels of antioxidants. Those antioxidants have several health potential benefits which make tea the most consumed beverage next to water. However, few Rwandans are benefiting from its beneficial properties. This study recommends Rwandese to renovate tea consumption habit in order to fully gain its health potential benefits.

Key words: Rwandese tea; antioxidant activity; ABTS; black tea

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Abstract # 61

Antiplasmodial and Antioxidant Activities, Acute Toxicity and Phytochemistry of Leaf Extracts of Dalbergia katangensis Lechenaud

Bashige Chiribagula Valentin1,2,3*, Bakari Amuri Salvius1, Kahumba Byanga Joh1, Duez Pierre 2  and Lumbu Simbi Jean-Baptiste3

1Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie – Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques – Université de Lubumbashi, Commune Kampemba, Lubumbashi/ RD Congo

2Laboratoire de Chimie Thérapeutique et Pharmacognosie, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université de Mons (UMONS), Mons, Belgique

3Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, RD Congo.

*Corresponding Author: Valentin Bashige: bachival@gmail.com

Malaria has a negative impact on the health of the population of endemic countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) due to highest morbidity. This situation gives rise to the reinforcement of the current means of its management and the use of plants constitutes one of the alternatives.

This study evaluates the antiplasmodial, antioxidant and toxic activities of the leaves of Dalbergia katangensis, a plant used in traditional Bukavian medicine against malaria. It also quantifies the phenols and flavonoids available to the plant.

Prussian blue test, aluminum trichloride test, pLDH assay, DPPH assay, and 14-day methods are used respectively for the determination of phenols and flavonoids and for evaluating of antiplasmodial, antioxidant and toxic activities. The results are analyzed by GraphPad with P value <0.05.

All extracts were found to be active and practically non-toxic. Methanol extract showed the highest antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 0.98 ± 0.1 μg / mL), antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.8 ± 0.1 μg / mL),  the highest phenols (C = 350.1 ± 0.7 mg EQ / g; p <0.001), and the highest flavonoids (C = 82.2 ± 3.1 mg EQ / g; p <0.001) total content. The aqueous extract is the least toxic (LD50 = 8912.5 mg / Kg).

We conclude that Dalbergia katangensis’s leaves are active on Plasmodium falciparum and practically non-toxic. Their use in traditional Congolese medicine against malaria would be justified.

Key words: Dalbergia katangensis; antiradical; antiplasmodial; phenols DRC

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Abstract # 62

The Effect of Diabetes on Refractive Error Changes

Fiston Kitema Gatera and Ekemri Kingsley Kene.

University of Rwanda, School of Heath Sciences, Ophthalmology Department

Corresponding author: kitefis@yahoo.fr

During hyperglycemic treatment, a number of diabetic patients suffer from blurred vision. It was noted since the 19th century that fluctuations of glucose level in blood mostly hyperglycemia, leads to changes in refractive errors. Since that initial observation, different reports have been highlighting reasons and types of changes. It has been highlighted that high blood sugar leads to hyperopic changes or myopia in early onset of diabetes or right after the start of medications.

The aim of this review is to assess the effect of diabetes on refractive error changes during hyperglycemia and control period for diabetic patients. The literature revealed that when sugar level is high (hyperglycemia), there is a rise in refractive error towards hyperopic changes. During the diabetic control period, there is reduction in refractive power thus changes in visual acuity. Fluctuations in refractive power of the eye are caused by osmosis in the crystalline lens of the eye, no power variation when the eye is pseudophakic (absence of natural crystalline lens in the eye). In addition refractive error changes noted are in most cases towards hyperopia than myopia.

Therefore, fasting plasma glucose should be taken into consideration while prescribing glasses for both myopic and hyperopic diabetic patients. Moreover, education should always be given to these patients in case they experience vision changes from time to time.

Keywords: Diabetes; refractive error; myopia, hyperopia

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Abstract # 63

Assessment and Management of Acute Dental Pain in Selected Health Centers in Kigali, Rwanda

1Marie Claire Ineza*, 2 Dr Moses Isyagi

1Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry  Department, School of Dentistry College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda  2  Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.

*Corresponding Author: m.c.ineza@gmail.com

Dental pain is the most common reason why people visit a dentist. In developing countries, access to oral health services is limited. In Rwanda, primary health care services are the patient’s first point of contact. The majority of non-dental health workers in health centers have little formal training in diagnosis and management of dental diseases and they believe that dental problems are dentists’ responsibility. Also, they may not be aware or reluctant to provide care for oral related complaints including acute dental pain. It has been observed that most patients referred from health centers came to the dental clinic in acute pain or with complications like cellulitis.

This study is aimed to determine the assessment and management of acute dental pain in primary health care centers by non dental health care workers (NDHCWs). The specific objectives were to determine the practice amongst NDHCWs in assessing acute dental pain, to assess how non-dental health care workers manage acute dental pain, and to determine the criteria used by NDHCWs to refer patients in acute dental pain for further dental treatment.

A cross sectional study carried out at Muhima, Kicukiro, Gikondo and Kimironko health centers using a sample size of 60 NDHCWs. A census method was used to select participants because of a limited number of NDHCWs who received out patient.

The findings of this study revealed that two thirds of NDHCWs limited their assessment of acute dental pain to patient history and observation in the assessment of acute dental pain. They are unaware of signs of acute dental pain due to pulpitis, periodontitis and pericoronitis, which can lead to failure in diagnosis. In the management of acute dental pain by NDHCWs, Ibuprofen and Amoxycillin were the drugs of choice. The referral of patients for definitive care is delayed and done only when medication fails.

In conclusion the training of NDHCWS in assessment and management of acute dental pain and/or the presence of oral health care workers is essential in health centers in Rwanda.

Key words: Acute dental pain; assessment; management; health center; non-dental health care workers

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Abstract # 64

Identification, Isolation, Structural Determination by LC-MS and NMR of Alkaloids from Holarrhena floribunda and Determination of their Activity on Mycobacterium ulcerans, the Causal Agent of Buruli Ulcer

*A. Yemoa1, J. Gbenou2, D. Affolabi3, M. Moudachirou2, A. Bigot1, R.Marini4,5, S. Anagonou3, F. Portaels6, A. Martin7, and J. Quetin-Leclercq8

1Université d’Abomey Calavi (UAC), Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Pharmacie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé (FSS), Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Analyse des Médicaments (LCAM); Cotonou, Benin

2Université d’Abomey Calavi (UAC), Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et des Huiles Essentielles (LAPHE), Faculté des Sciences de la Santé (FSS) et Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (FAST), Cotonou, Benin

3Laboratoire de Référence des Mycobactéries (LRM), Centre National Hospitalier de Pneumo-phtisiologie (CNHPP), Cotonou, Benin

4University of Liege (ULg), CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Liege, Belgium

5University of Kisangani, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

6Institute of Tropical Medicine (IMT), Department of Biomedical Sciences, Antwerpen, Belgium

7Ghent University, Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Gent, Belgium

8Université Catholique de Louvain, Pharmacognosy Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), (UCL), Bruxelles, Belgium

Corresponding Author Email: ayemoa@yahoo.fr

 Buruli ulcer (BU), commonly known as Bairnsdale ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is one of the most neglected but treatable tropical diseases.While anti-mycobacterial therapy is often effective for the earliest nodular or ulcerative lesions, surgery is sometimes necessary for advanced ulcerated lesions. In Benin, the first recourse to treat BU is often traditional treatment. Holarrhena floribunda is reported to be used successfully in traditional treatment of BU and extracts were shown to possess anti-mycobacterial properties [1].

Our research question was: Does Holarrhena floribunda contain compounds effective on Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of BU? Our hypothesis was that Holarrhena floribunda contains anti-mycobacterial alkaloids.

By preliminary TLC, we confirmed the presence of alkaloids in the anti-mycobacterial crude dichloromethane extract of Holarrhena floribunda.A series of chromatographs were used (atmospheric pressure and medium pressure column normal phase chromatography) and gel filtration on SEPHADEX LH20 to obtain five alkaloid containing sub-fractions from a first one active on M. ulcerans according to the resazurin microtiter assay [1]. These fractions were analyzed by HPLC-HR MS (ESI+) and the one containing a pure compound by NMR.

We determined that fractionation of the enriched alkaloid extract allowed the identification of four different alkaloids in five different fractions and isolation of one of them with high purity. The structure of the major compound was identified as holadysamine (3-methyl amino pregna5,16-dien-20-ol) by MS and NMR. HPLC-HRMS/MS indicated that the three other compounds had molecular formulas of, respectively, C22H37ON (MW:331.29), C21H33ON (MW: 315.26), and C23H37ON (MW: 343.29) and could correspond to holaphyllinol, holamine or holaphyllamine and a new alkaloid. Pure holadysamine was found to be more active (MIC = 50 g/mL) than fractions containing the other alkaloids but less active than rifampicin (MIC = 2 g/mL).

In conclusion, our results show that anti-mycobacterial extracts of aerial parts of H. floribunda, used by traditional healers to treat BU, contain several alkaloids. Holadysamine was found to be the most active one (MIC = 50 g/mL), but this activity is lower than that of rifampicin and could not totally explain the effectiveness which may be the result of synergistic effects with other plants as may occur with antibiotics [4].

Key words: Buruli ulcer; medicinal plants; antimycobacterial activity; LC-MS ; NM

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Abstract # 65

Mortality Predicted by Incident Hematological Malignancy, Bacteremia and Lack of Chimiotherapy at Kinshasa University Clinics

*Mireille Solange Nganga Nkanga1, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza2, Yolande Voumbo Matoumona3, Etienne Mokondjimobe3, Ange Antoine Abena3, Jacques Silou3, Jacques Bikaula Ngwidiwo1, Antoine Lufimbo Katawandja1, Alain Nganga Nzonzila4, Paul Roger Beia Kazadi5, Donatien Kayembe Nzongola-Nkasu1
1Department of Medical Biology, Kinshasa University Clinics, Faculty of Medicine, Democratic Republic of Congo

2Walter Sisulu University

3Marien Ngouabi University

4 Saint Joseph Hospital

5 OVD Hospital Center.

*Corresponding Author Email: mnganga2002@yahoo.fr
The objective of this study was to identify environmental, epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and onco-hematological factors able to predict case fatality.
This was a retrospective cohort study in black patient’s ≥ 20 years managed for recurrent fever, infections, anemia, and bacteremia between 2009 and 2015 at Kinshasa University Clinics, DRC. The outcomes such as incident HM and case fatality were assessed using univariate relative risk (RR) and multivariate proportional hazard ratio (HR) by Cox regression analysis, while Log-Rank test was performed for comparisons by Kaplan Meier curves

Out of 105 patients (male: female ratio = 1), 60% (n= 63) and 57.1% (n= 60) experienced incident HM and case fatality, respectively. There was a significant univariate association between age ≥ 50 years, rainy season, hemolytic anemia, HM, bone pain, elevated Erythrocyte sedimentation, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, neutropenia, El Nino years, thrombocytopenia, multi-transfusions, bacteremia, lack of chemotherapy, and mortality. After adjusting for confounders using Cox regression models, only incident HM (HR = 16.8; 95% CI, P< 0.0001), lack of chemotherapy (HR = 6.9, 95% CI, P< 0.002), and bacteremia (HR= 4.2; 95% CI, P= 0.020) were the most significant and independent predictors of mortality.
In a separate analysis for HM patients, the mortality rates did not vary (P> 0.05) across HM sub-types: 71.4% (n= 10/14) in multiple myeloma, 84.3 % (n= 15/18) in acute myeloid leukemia, 70% (n= 7/10) in myelodysplastic syndromes, 80% (n= 8/10) in chronic myeloid leukemia, 33.3% (n= 2/6) in acute myeloid leukemia, and 80% (n= 4/5) in acute lymphoid leukemia.

We conclude that HM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with epidemic rates explained by lack of chemotherapy, and recurrent bacteremia among Bantu patients facing aging, climate change, rainy seasons, and lack of palliative care.
Keywords: Hematologic malignancy; incidence; mortality; environment; poverty; sub-Saharan Africa.

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Abstract # 66

Oral Hygiene Practices and Periodontal Health Status of Students with Vision Disability in Rwamagana, Rwanda

1Marie Claire Ineza*, 2Donat Uwayezu, 3Irene Uwisanze, 4Marie Claire Mazimpaka

1Department of Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda

2Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry,  College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda

2Nemba Hospital

3Rwamagana Hospital, Rwanda

*Corresponding Author: m.c.ineza@gmail.com

Oral health is an important aspect of overall health for all students, and is particularly more important for students with special health needs. Practice of oral hygiene can be used to help the students with vision disability to improve their health status. Many studies reported that these students have high amount of oral diseases, mostly periodontal diseases, compared to people with good vision due to inadequate practices of oral hygiene. Several studies have found that the oral hygiene of the people with vision disability was significantly worse than people with good vision with a further disadvantage of not knowing early their oral health problems. This is similar to the observation done towards the students with vision disability from HVP (Home de la Vierge des Pauvres) Gatagara-Rwamagana who attended dental service in Rwamagana hospital. They come with different dental problems, mainly poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease.

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the oral hygiene practice and periodontal health status of students with vision disability from HVP Gatagara-Rwamagana. Specific objectives were to assess oral hygiene practice among students with vision disability and to assess the periodontal health status of students with vision disability from HVP Gatagara-Rwamagana. The population of this study consisted of both male and female students of HVP Gatagara-Rwamagana secondary school, which is one of the special schools in Rwanda with vision disability students. A census sampling method was used to choose the participants of the study and the total number of students was 113. A self- administered questionnaire translated in Braille system was used for data collection; regarding their oral hygiene practices and they were clinically examined to assess their periodontal health. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 2.0.

The findings revealed that 85% of students brushed their teeth once a day, out of 95% never used dental floss. The mean value of plaque and bleeding indices were 70 and 40 respectively. However; nearly 12% of population presented periodontal pockets deeper than 3.5mm.

We concluded that the students with vision disability from HVP Gatagara-Rwamagana had poor oral hygiene due to lack of vision. Consequently, they presented with increased gingivitis prevalence. It is the dental professional responsibility to promote their oral health status and improve their quality of life.

Key Words: Oral hygiene practice; periodontal health status; students with vision disability.

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Abstract # 67

The ‘Paddy Paradox’ Revisited: How Rice Farming Impacts on Household Economic Status and Malaria Risk in Eastern Rwanda 

*Alexis Rulisa1,2, Fred Kaatera1,3, Chantal Ingabire1,4, Emmanuel Hakizimana1,5, Michele van Vugt6, Leon Mutesa1,7, Luuk van Kempen2

1Medical Research Centre Division, Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Kigali, Rwanda

2Department of Cultural Anthropology and Development Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

3Department of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

4Department of Health of Promotion, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands

5Entomology laboratory, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

6Center for Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

7College of Medicine and Health Allied Sciences, University of Rwanda, Huye, Rwanda

* Corresponding Author’s Email: alexis.rulisa@gmail.com

Economic activities may entail negative externalities for public health, which is particularly problematic in poverty-stricken areas with few alternative livelihood options. The case of rice farming in eastern Rwanda fits this description, as it provides breeding sites for malaria-infested mosquitoes but at the same time generates cash income and improves nutritional standards locally. These economic benefits may in turn reduce malaria incidence through channels such as better housing and higher investment in prevention, even though people are at a higher risk due to an expansion of the mosquito population. This so-called ‘paddy paradox’ has been observed in a number of studies, but its prevalence is disputed. We add to the evidence base on the ‘paddy paradox’ by studying a case in Eastern Rwanda (Ruhuha district of Bugasera province).

The study unpacks the impact of rice cultivation on malaria incidence by comparing households that differ in their involvement in rice cultivation and proximity to the marshlands that host the rice fields. To this purpose, a large-scale survey was conducted among more than 4,000 households (comprising 17,000 individuals) in the area from June to December 2013. Data on household demographics, economic status, malaria prevention efforts as well as health-seeking behaviour has been collected. All household members have also been screened for malaria parasitemia and anaemia, and a malnutrition assessment was carried out for under-five children. In addition, qualitative data was collected through nine focus group discussions and a set of key informant interviews. The study takes a distinct mixed methods approach by carefully triangulating the qualitative and quantitative material obtained.

It is shown that rice farming is positively and significantly associated with households’ wealth, food security, health insurance status, and protection against malaria. At the same time, it is confirmed that rice farming practices increase the risk of malaria transmission through expanded mosquito populations. Rice fields are the main breeding site in the area. Households located nearby the marshlands where rice is cultivated are the most affected by malaria. For those households who generate income from rice production directly, the income effect dominates, resulting in a lower disease burden from malaria. By contrast, households in communities that are located close to the rice cultivation areas but who do not participate in this economic activity, face a higher malaria burden.

We conclude that rice farming leads to private benefits in the economic domain, which spills over into the health domain, but at the same time creates a public health risk. As a result, the ‘paddy paradox’ hypothesis is confirmed at the level of rice-producing households, but rejected at the wider community level. Hence, strategies need to be developed that are able to tap the private benefits of rice cultivation and re-direct these to fund collective action against malaria. The paper explores various modalities that are potentially capable of doing so and discusses their financial and organizational feasibility.

Key words: Malaria; rice farming; externalities; food security; mixed methods

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Abstract # 68

 Community-Based Biological Control of Malaria Mosquitoes Using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in Rwanda: Community Awareness, Acceptance and Participation

*Chantal Marie Ingabire, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Alexis Rulisa, Fredrick Kateera, Bart Van Den Borne, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Leon Mutesa, Michelle Van Vugt, Constantianus JM Koenraadt, Willem Takken, and Jane Alaii.

University of Rwanda

*Corresponding Author Email: cingabire7@gmail.com

Targeting the aquatic stages of malaria vectors via larval source management (LSM) in collaboration with local communities could accelerate the progress towards malaria elimination when deployed in addition to existing vector control strategies [indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets]. However, the precise role that communities can assume in implementing such an intervention has not been fully investigated in a systematic way, because most interventions employed vertical management of the intervention.

This study investigated community awareness, acceptance and participation in a study that incorporated the socio-economic and entomological impact of LSM using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in eastern Rwanda, and identified challenges and recommendations for future scale-up.

The implementation of the community-based LSM intervention took place in rice fields of Ruhuha, Rwanda, from February to July 2015. The intervention included three arms: control, community-based (CB) and project-supervised (PS). Mixed methods were used to collect baseline and end-line socio-economic data in January and October 2015. A baseline quantitative survey included a random sample of 320 rice farmers and a cross section of community members (45) distributed in five focus group discussions (FGDs). Ten FGDs were conducted with 92 participants overall for the end line study.

Our results indicate that a highly perceived safety and effectiveness of Bti was reported in the quantitative survey at the start of the intervention, despite a low level of awareness. Being aware of malaria symptoms, and perceiving Bti as safe on other living organisms, significantly increased the likelihood for community participation through investment of extra labour time for Bti application. On the other hand, the likelihood for community participation was lower if respondents (1) perceived rice farming as very profitable, (2) provided more money to the cooperative as a capital (more than 3000 RWF) and (3) were already involved in rice farming for more than six years. Following six months of community-based Bti application, an increase in knowledge and skills regarding Bti application was reported. The community perceived a remarkable reduction in mosquito density and nuisance biting in treated arms. No major differences were reported across the three Bti intervention arms in terms of the implementation, however, newly identified water dams were reported and sprayed in CB when compared to PS. Main operational, seasonal, and geographical challenges included manual application of Bti, long working hours, and need for transportation means for reaching the fields. Recommendations were made for future successful Bti program implementation including addressing the above-mentioned concerns, a wider scale-up of the intervention, and government adoption of LSM as part of its vector control strategies.

We conclude that community awareness and support towards LSM increased following Bti application. A high effectiveness of Bti in terms of reduction of mosquito abundance and nuisance biting was perceived. The study confirmed the feasibility of community-based LSM interventions and served as evidence for future scale-up of Bti application and adoption into the Rwandan national malaria vector control strategies.

 Key words: Malaria mosquitoes; community-based biological control; community awareness, acceptation, support and participation

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Abstract # 69

 Structure Interaction Between the Predicted 3D Model of Mouse Zinc finger MYND Domain-Containing Protein 19 (Q9CQG3) and Co-Factor Products AdoHcy – Suggestion of   Compound Candidates for Cancer, Obesity, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Other Potent Drugs Development

Mutangana Dieudonne*, Mugabo Bertin, Gatanganwa Jeanne Marie and Iradukunda René

University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, Department of Biology

*Corresponding Author: drmatured@gmail.com

 Mouse Zinc finger MYND (myeloid translocation protein 8, nervy, deaf1) domain-containing protein 19 (ZMYND19) is a Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) interacting zinc-finger Protein. This protein has 227 amino acids, characterized by a C-terminal MYND domain with 49 residues long. Interest in Mouse MYND19 has grown because recently published data report it to be involved in cell cycle regulation and cell growth, where its over expression is associated with cancer. Beside this, Mouse ZMYND19 is questioned for its specific interaction with the C-terminus of MCH-R1, a protein associated with cardiovascular and obesity diseases. Potent drugs have been suggested to come from Mouse ZMYND19 and ligands interactions understanding, but the problem is still unsolved. This is due to the lack of Mouse ZMYND19 three-dimension (3D) structure. It is in this context that this study predicted Mouse ZMYND19’s 3D structure for further analyzing its structural interactions with cofactor products S-Adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) using in silico approach.

In order to achieve the core objective, the FASTA sequence of Mouse ZMYND19 (Q9CQG3) was downloaded from Uniprot database. Search for structural homologs to query the sequence was done by accessing the iterated mode of PSI-blast against protein databank. CLUSTAL omega was accessed for multiple sequence alignment. The Phylogenetic analysis was performed using PHYLIP package, and 3D structure prediction was done with SWISS model/ homology modeling. The predicted model was evaluated by both ERRAT and PROCHECK and docking study was performed with HEX8 package.

The alignment results reported some similarities and conserved residues whereas the consensus tree reported leucine zipper of human (5EX3) to be a good template for homology modeling practice. The evaluation of the predicted 3D model structure with ERRAT and PROCHECK suggest that the model was of good quality. Docking studies revealed a high affinity (Docking energy – 214.24KjMol-1) between the predicted 3D model and AdoHcy ligand, with many interacting residues most of which are hydrophobic.

In summary, the interaction between the predicted 3D model of Mouse ZMYND19 and ligand AdoHcy suggests both compounds to be good candidates for cancer, obesity, cardiovascular diseases potent drugs development. Further studies on synthesis of the novel drugs should consider these findings.

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Abstract # 70

 Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Using an Extraperitoneal Approach: Initial Experience in 20 Cases in a Single Center in Douala, Cameroon

*Kamadou C1, Tenke C1, Sandjon JP2, Kamga J3, Kameni A1 and Njinou B1

1Centre Médico Chirurgical d’Urologie et de Chirurgie Mini Invasive. Douala Cameroun

2Centre Médical d’Urgence et de Réanimation de Douala. Cameroun

3Hôpital Général. Yaoundé Cameroun

*Corresponding author email: cyrkamadjou@yahoo.fr

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the operative, oncologic and functional results of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy based on an initial series of 20 patients. We developed a pure extraperitoneal approach with pelvic lymph node dissection. This approach seems more comparable to the open technique and avoid potential risks. We evaluated the perioperative parameters (blood loss, operative time, transfusion rate) and postoperative results (oncological results, continence and potency) after our first 20 cases.

Between January 2011 and April 2014, we performed 20 laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

On average, patients were 62 years old (range 53-73), and had preoperative mean PSA values of 20,44 ng/ml (3,2-44,30). The clinical stage was T1 in 90% of cases. and T2 and T3 in 10% of cases. In the large majority of cases (17 patients), Gleason score was less than 7. We used a pure extraperitoneal approach and we performed a descending technique starting with the dissection at the bladder neck. The seminal vesicles dissection is comparable to the open approach.

We found that no deaths were observed in this series. No conversion was required. The mean operative time was 198 minutes (120-300), including the lymphadenectomy phase that was considered necessary in 75% of patients. The mean post operative bladder catheterization time was 10 days. The mean hospital stay was 3 post-operative days. The pathological stage was less than pT2 in 16 patients (80%). Positive nodes were found in 15% of the patients (3/20). At a mean follow-up of 6 months, 65% of patients were free of biochemical recurrence. Detectable post operative PSA at 3 months were observed in 6 patients. The continence rate (no pad) was 45% at 3 months. After a nerve sparing procedure in 13 patients, the total potency rate at 6 months was 30%.

In conclusion, this study confirms the value in our experience of the laparoscopic approach of radical prostatectomy, which allows satisfactory cancer control associated with low perioperative morbidity and encouraging functional results in terms both of continence and erectile function.

Key words: Laparoscopy; radical prostatectomy; extraperitoneal approach; Cameroon.

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Abstract # 71

Laparoscopic Pyelolithotomy and Ureterotomy;  A Feasible Minimally Invasive Treatment Option in a Single Center in Cameroon

 *Kamadou C1,  Kamga J2 , Sandjon JP3, Tenke C1,  Kameni A1 and Njinou B1

1Centre Médico Chirurgical d’Urologie et de Chirurgie Mini Invasive. Douala Cameroun

2Hôpital Général. Yaoundé Cameroun

3Centre Médical d’Urgence et de Réanimation de Douala. Cameroun

 *Corresponding author email: cyrkamadjou@yahoo.fr

 Laparoscopy can be an alternative modality in the management of renal and ureteral stones. We present our experience with laparoscopic renal and ureteral stone surgery, although most ureteral and renal stones are managed using endo-urologic techniques, open surgery or shockwave lithotripsy.

A cohort of 31 patients (20 renal units and 11 ureteral units) underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and ureterolithotomy at our institution. Twenty males, eleven females with mean age of 42 years (range 25-70 years) underwent 30 laparoscopic procedures. The mean stone number and size, were 3 (range1-5) and 2 cm (range 1-4,5 cm), respectively. Five patients had staghorn calculus.

After insertion of abdominal trocart, pneumoperitoneum was achieved, and the kidney or ureter was exposed. The renal pelvis and ureter were identified, dissected, and opened. The stones were extracted using laparoscopic forceps. This rigid forceps was used to extract any caliceal stones. The renal pelvis and ureter was sutured after placement of antegrade ureteral double J stent, and the stones were removed from the peritoneal cavity. The procedure was concluded after placement of an intraperitoneal drain.

All procedures were completed laparoscopically. The mean operative time was 140 minutes. The estimated blood loss was less than 20 ml, and none of the patients received a blood transfusion.

There were no major intra-operative or post-operative complications. The stone free rate was 100%. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (range 1_5 days). All patients needed double J stent placement. One patient with infected staghorn calculus had prolonged urinary leak, which stopped with conservative management. The double J stent was removed after 40 days. Within a mean follow-up period of 3 months, no stone recurrence occurred.

In conclusion, laparoscopic removal of renal and ureteral calculi plays a role in special cases of urolithiasis. In experienced hands, it can be performed safely and efficiently and may therefore replace open stone surgery in most indications. The benefits of laparoscopy are lower postoperative morbidity, shorter hospitalization, shorter convalescence time, and better cosmetics results.

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Abstract # 72

 Transurethral Lithotripsy With Rigid Ureteroscopy for Proximal and Distal Stones:  Results of a Single Center in Cameroon

 *Kamadjou C, Kameni A, Tenke C and Njinou B

Centre Médico Chirurgical d’Urologie et de Chirurgie Mini Invasive, Douala, Cameroun

Corresponding author email: cyrkamadou@yahoo.fr

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracorporeal lithotriptors, Lithoclast (EMS, Switzerland) in retrograde rigid ureteroscopy of proximal and distal ureteric calculi.

A cohort of 20 patients with ureteral calculi underwent Lithoclast lithotripsy using a 8/9.8F rigid ureteroscope. We reviewed the medical records from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the stones treated, 14 were lower ureteric, 1 was middle ureteric, and 9 were upper ureteric stones. The mean diameter of the stones was 8 mm (4-15). Two senior consultants performed the procedure.

Of the 24 stones, 100% were successfully fragmented: 35% of the lower, 5% of the middle and 45% of the upper ureteric stones. Median operative time was 45 minutes (range 25-65 minutes). The average number of procedures was 1 with 18 patients requiring one, and 2 patients requiring two because of bilateral ureteral calculi. Post-operative stenting was done in all patients for 2 weeks. The post-operative hospitalization was 1 day. Significant complications include 2 cases of ureteric perforation who needed prolonged internal ureteral stenting.

In sub-Saharan Africa, rigid ureteroscopy was associated with shorter operation time and post operative hospitalization period. These data also suggest that it is safe and more effective than open surgery in the aspect of high stone-free rate with low complication rates. We believe that it is an excellent treatment modality for managing ureteral calculi.

 Key words: Transurethral lithotripsy; rigid ureteroscopy, proximal and distal stones; Cameroon

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Abstract # 73

Community-Based Biological Control of Malaria Mosquitoes Using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in Rwanda: Community Awareness, Acceptance and Participation

Chantal Marie Ingabire, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Alexis Rulisa, Fredrick Kateera, Bart Van Den Borne, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Leon Mutesa, Michelle Van Vugt, Constantianus JM Koenraadt, Willem Takken, and Jane Alaii.

 Targeting the aquatic stages of malaria vectors via larval source management (LSM) in collaboration with local communities could accelerate the progress towards malaria elimination when deployed in addition to existing vector control strategies (indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets. However, the precise role that communities can assume in implementing such an intervention has not been fully investigated in a systematic way, because most interventions employed vertical management of the intervention. This study investigated community awareness, acceptance and participation in a study that incorporated the socio-economic and entomological impact of LSM using “Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis” (Bti) in eastern Rwanda, and identified challenges and recommendations for future scale up.

The implementation of the community-based LSM intervention took place in rice fields of Ruhuha, Rwanda, from February to July 2015. The intervention included three arms: control, community-based (CB) and project-supervised (PS). Mixed methods were used to collect baseline and end line socio-economic data in January and October 2015. A baseline quantitative survey included a random sample of 320 rice farmers and a cross section of community members (45) distributed in five focus group discussions (FGDs). Ten FGDs were conducted with 92 participants overall for the end line study.

A high perceived safety and effectiveness of Bti was reported in the quantitative survey at the start of the intervention, despite a low level of awareness. Being aware of malaria symptoms and perceiving Bti as safe on other living organisms significantly increased the likelihood for community participation through investment of extra labour time for Bti application. On the other hand, the likelihood for community participation was lower if respondents (1) perceived rice farming as very profitable, (2) provided more money to the cooperative as a capital (more than 3000 RWF) and (3) were already involved in rice farming for more than six years. Following six months of community-based Bti application, an increase in knowledge and skills regarding Bti application was reported. The community perceived a remarkable reduction in mosquito density and nuisance biting in treated arms. No major differences were reported across the three Bti intervention arms in terms of the implementation, however newly identified water dams were reported and sprayed in CB when compared to PS. Main operational, seasonal and geographical challenges included manual application of Bti, long working hours, and need for transportation means for reaching the fields. Recommendations were made for future successful Bti program implementation including addressing above-mentioned concerns, wider scale up of the intervention and government adoption of LSM as part of its vector control strategies.

In conclusion, community awareness and support towards LSM increased following Bti application. A high effectiveness of Bti in terms of reduction of mosquito abundance and nuisance biting was perceived. The study confirmed the feasibility of community-based LSM interventions and served as evidence for future scale up of Bti application and adoption into the Rwandan national malaria vector control strategies.

Key words: Malaria biological control; community awareness, acceptance and participation; safety and effectiveness; larval source management.

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Abstract # 74

The Universal Applicability of Fe0 Filters for Water Treatment

Prof. Dr. Noubactep Chicgoua

Department of Applied Geology.  University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany

Author’s email: cnoubac@gwdg.de

Various processes have been developed for decentralized safe drinking water provision of which adsorptive filtration is widely accepted and utilized on a full-scale basis. In essence, adsorption and size-exclusion processes are the only effective methods in universally reducing contaminant concentration below permissible limits (MCL). Other processes (coagulation, flocculation, and precipitation) are chemical and, thus, limited by their own equilibrium constant. This means that a chemical process will be suitable for the removal of a given contaminant only if the equilibrium concentration corresponds to a value below the MCL.

 Though Fe0 has a very high potential to induce the removal of various aqueous contaminants by adsorption, co-precipitation and size-exclusion, only a systematic investigation will enable the successful implementation of Fe0 filters. The most critical factor is the pH value as it dictates the entire process chemistry via the solubility of iron. Fortunately, natural waters are of pH > 4.0 such that this fundamental condition is satisfied. The double fact that (i) contaminants are enmeshed in iron oxides and (ii) the system porosity is lost with time implies that regeneration by backwashing is not possible. In other words, recycling filters wastes should be part of the design. It appears that the Fe0 filtration technology has no real limitations. No chemical additives are needed (chemistry free), no sophisticated accessories are needed (simplicity), no electrical power is need (energy free), installation and maintenance can be performed by the owner (household or small community), the design should be demand-oriented (size of the household/community). The evidence that Fe0 filters are prone to fouling can be tackled by increasing the frequency of unit replacement or using short-living Fe0-materials. All these reasons make Fe0 filters the ideal solution for the developing countries as there is no constraint for implementation other than locally available materials and man power.

 The culture of maintenance and regeneration will be established in an internal dynamic. The technical viability and economical feasibility are demonstrated. The environmental and social acceptance of the technology in the community can be considered acquired as the technology is developed locally. However, advice and knowledge transfer can be acquired in collaboration with other groups, including scientific ones.

 Finally, as the “most appropriate” option, Fe0 filtration will soon be the “best available technology” for universal safe drinking water provision. The significant advancements made in research on ‘Fe0 for environmental remediation and water treatment is regarded as the cornerstone for a universal sustainable solution to this long-lasting crisis. In clear words, safe drinking water for all is no more an ‘elusive goal’.

 Key words: water filter treatment; adsorptive filtration; size exclusion processes; coagulation; flocculation; precipitation; maintenance and regeneration; environmental remediation.

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Abstract # 75

Development of Low Digestible Pasta for Diabetic Population

Djeukeu Asongni

Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry

University of Douala, Cameroon

* Author’s corresponding email: djeukeuas@yahoo.com

Diabetes is still one of the non-communicable diseases highly prevalent in Africa. Even though there is no medical treatment available for this disease, food solution remains minimal on the continent. This study have been therefore designed to develop low digestible pasta adapted to diabetic patient metabolism.

For this purpose, Dioscorea schimperiana has been chosen as the additional ingredient in pasta development. Yam flour was obtained after an improved drying process. Flours were blended with Durum semolina flour at different proportions (10, 20, 30 and 60%). Nutritional value, cooking profile, starch digestibility, antioxidant capacity and sensory analysis were assessed.

The soluble and insoluble fibers were increased with the addition of yam flour. Solid leach out was observed within the range of 8% in all the pasta samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that pasta with up to 30% yam flour was acceptable. The scavenging properties against free radicals were higher in yam based pasta. In vitro starch digestibility, rapidly digestible starch decreased with the addition of yam flour.

In conclusion, this study suggests that Dioscorea schimperiana can be used as a low glycemic index ingredient to produce food for diabetic persons.

Key words: Diabetes; low digestible pasta; low glycemic index; Cameroon.

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Abstract # 76

Pedological Characterization of Soils Developed from Volcanic Parent Materials of Northern Province of Rwanda
*Providence Uwitonze1, Balthazar Michael Msanya1, Peter Wilson Mtakwa1, Solange Uwingabire1 and Sylvere Sirikare2
1Department of Soil and Geological Sciences, College of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
2Rwanda Agriculture Board, Kigali, Rwanda

* Corresponding author email: provy16@gmail.com

 A study was carried out on soils developed from volcanic parent materials of the Northern Province of Rwanda to expose the current soil conditions aiming largely on pedological characterization but, to a certain extent, also on assessment of potentials and limitations of soils for production of major crops in the area.

 Three representative pedons (KNG-P1, KNG-P2, and GHNG-P1) were identified and described. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical properties. Pedons were classified using USDA Soil Taxonomy and FAO-WRB for Soil Resources.

 Results show that soils were shallow to very deep and well drained. Texture was generally loamy with bulk densities ranging from 0.39 to 1.34 g/cm3. Topsoils were medium acid to mildly alkaline, with high to very high OC ranging from 3.97 to 13.03% and CEC soil ranging from 31.4 to 56.8 cmol (+)/kg). pHNaF was > 9.5 in Pedons KNG-P1 and KNG-P2 reflecting exchange complex dominated by amorphous materials and/or humus complexes. Phosphorus retention capacity (PRC) ranged from 6.25% to 99.58% and only Pedons KNG-P1 and KNG-P2 met the “andic properties” requirement of PRC ≥ 85%. Melanic index values indicated that these two pedons were characterized more by fulvic than humic acids. Nutrient imbalance was common in studied soils, implying suboptimal nutrient uptake and toxicity. Degree of weathering of studied soils was low as indicated by their weathering indices. Using field and laboratory data, Pedons KNG-P1 and KNG-P2 were classified as Andisols/Andosols and GHNG-P1 as Mollisols/Phaeozems. Studied soils were rated as marginally suitable to moderately suitable for the major crops of the area.

 Application of P fertilizers coupled with efficient placement to enhance P, and soil conservation should be underscored in study area.

 Keywords: Pedological characterization; volcanic soils; assessment of potential major crop production; soil conservation; Rwanda.

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Abstract # 77

Updating Rwanda Reference Soils Database in Disturbed Lands –  Case study: Gatumba Mining District-Ngororero District (Western Rwanda)

1 Dative Imanirareba*, 1Francois Xavier Naramabuye and 2Sylvere N. Sirikare

1 Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Animal & Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Musanze

2Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB), Kigali, Rwanda

* Corresponding author email: dirareba@gmail.com

Pedological characterization to update the current situation of soils is important to support any decision for present land use and fertility management.

Pedological characterization was carried out on soil disturbed by mining activities in Gatumba sector, Ngororero District, western Province of Rwanda. Eight representative Soil Profiles (GTM-P1, GTM-P2, GMB-P3, GTM-P4, GTM-P5, GTM-P6, GTM-P7 & GTM-P8) were identified, described and sampled using standard manuals. A total of eighteen soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties to assess their overtime change expected to be the reason of crop productivity decline as mentioned by farmers. Soil classification was carried out using two international systems of classification. Transects were used to select sites for soil profile description and soil sampling.

Analytical data showed that SOC was low in A horizons varied from 0.22 to 2.04 % across the profiles. Total N contents ranged from 0.05 to 0.13 % in all profiles and were moderate in all sub-soils. Soils were acid pH (3.5 to 5.5). Basic cations Mg2+ varied from 0.08 to 1.11 cmol (+) kg-1soil in A horizons and between 0.02 and 1.25 cmol (+) kg-1soil in subsoils. High amounts of fine sand were observable in many soil horizons. Soil bulk density ranged from 791.49 to 1617.39 kg/m3 in A horizons and from 1125.84 to 3102.89 kg/m3 in subsoils. In conclusion, although statistical analysis indicated no significant decrease in exchangeable Ca2+, K+, Na+ as a result of land disturbance and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in soil pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter, Mg2+ was statistically demonstrated to confirm that nutrients status was decreased and may have contributed to crop productivity decline.

This study recommends a general update of agricultural soils which have been disturbed so as to improve the accuracy of fertilizer recommendations.

Key words: Reference soils database; disturbed land; pedological characterization;crop productivity; accuracy of fertilization; Rwanda.

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Abstract # 78

 Determination of Irrigation Water Using Soil Properties, Climatic Conditions and Crop Characteristics in Rugeramigozi Marshland

*Yves Uwiragiye1, Francois Xavier Naramabuye1, Tamás Szegi2 and Erika Michéli2

1University of Rwanda, 2: Szent István University

Corresponding Author Email: uwyves@gmail.com

Inadequate natural resources management is one of the causes of food insecurity which is a big challenge in the world today. Human activities are causing environmental degradation because of a high growing population in developing countries, unsustainable agriculture, green house gases, and urbanization. High demand for agricultural products in coming years will be met by using land and water resources in a sustainable way, increasing soil fertility, and using efficiently irrigated land in adequate way. Indeed, it has shown that irrigated agriculture is making a great contribution to food security and is giving more than 40% of crop production. It has also doubled in the last 50 years. The problem of water management in irrigation projects is a critical issue in many cases for too many farmers have a limited knowledge on he importance of soil properties on water application and water use efficiency.

The main objective of this paper is to calculate the irrigation water needed by rice in its growing season based on soil properties, crop characteristics, and climatic conditions in Rugeremigozi Marshland. In addition to this proposed main objective, this research intended to describe and classify the soil of cultivated land.

In order to achieve the objective of this research, soil profiles description, soil analysis, pedo- transfer functions, soil classification and CROPWAT 8.0 and CLIMWAT 2.0 models of the Food Agricultural organization (FAO) were used for finding irrigation water requirements.

The results of this research are that there was a significant correlation between soil properties (bulk density, organic matter, and soil moisture potential) and gross irrigation. A significant relationship was found with crop evapotranspiration with irrigation water requirement.

In conclusion, soil properties, climatic conditions, and crop characteristics showed a great effect on the  irrigation water requirement of a specific crop.

Key words: Soil moisture content; crop water requirement; net irrigation; gross irrigation

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Abstract # 79

Application of Geospatial Technologies for Agricultural Resources Monitoring and Management in Rwanda

*Benjamin Bukombe1, Ádám Csorba2, F.X. Naramabuye3, Tamás Szegi2, Yves Uwiragiye1, István Waltner2 and Erika Michéli2

1ESA Tiger Bridge-Water for Agriculture project

2Szent István University, Gödöllő-Hungary, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry

3University of Rwanda, Department of Soil and Environment Management

* Corresponding Author Email: bukombebenjamin@gmail.com

The Rwandan agriculture strongly relies in the dry seasons on the water stored in artificial reservoirs of various sizes for irrigation purposes. However, the success of irrigation depends on a wide range of soil properties which directly affect the soil moisture regime. By integrating Sentinel data and predictive modeling of soil property, the objectives of the study were to monitor the water level fluctuation in irrigation reservoirs, estimate the volume of water available for irrigation, and combine this information with soil property map products to support the decision making process for sustainable irrigation water management in the Southern province of Rwanda.

For water level and volume estimation, a series of Sentinel-1 (product type: GRD, acquisition mode: IW, polarizations HH and VH) data were obtained covering the study area and spanning over a period of two years. To map the extent of water bodies the Radar-Based Water Body Mapping module of the Water Observation and Information System (WOIS) was used. High-resolution optical data (Sentinel-2) were used for validation in cloud-free periods.

For sustainable irrigation water management, digital soil property map products were developed by applying and comparing two machine learning techniques (Random Forest and Support Vector Machine) on soil dataset for the region and a wide range of environmental covariates related to soil forming factors.

Keywords: Sentinel; digital soil mapping, irrigation; Rwanda; time-series analysis; water management

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Abstract # 80

Updating Rwanda Reference Soils Database in Disturbed Lands Case study: Gatumba Mining District-Ngororero District (Western Rwanda)

1Dative Imanirareba, 1Francois Xavier Naramabuye, and 2Sylvere N. Sirikare

1Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Animal and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda                                                                                                                                               2Rwanda Agricultural Board, Kigali, Rwanda

Pedological characterization to update the current situation of soils is important to support any decision for present land use and fertility management. Pedological characterization was carried out on soil disturbed by mining activities in Gatumba sector, Ngororero District, Western Province of Rwanda. Due to mining activities, the natural vegetation cover in Gatumba area was removed and replaced either by crops or bare wasteland with reduced available arable land. Erosion and runoff are considered to be relatively excessive in the highland of Rwanda due to relatively high slope gradients, heavy rains, cultivation and mining activities, which contribute to the decrease in the productive capacity of the concerned land.

Eight representative soil profiles (GTM-P1, GTM-P2, GMB-P3, GTM-P4, GTM-P5, GTM-P6, GTM-P7 & GTM-P8) were identified, described and sampled using standard manuals. A total of eighteen soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Soil classification was carried out using two international systems of classification. Transects were used to select sites for soil profile description and soil sampling. Chemical and physical properties of 8 soil profiles have been investigated in selected sites to assess their overtime change expected to be the reason of crop productivity decline as mentioned by farmers.

Analytical data showed that SOC was low in A horizons varied from 0.22 to 2.04 % across the profiles. Total N contents ranged from 0.05 to 0.13 % in all profiles and were moderate in all sub-soils. The C/N ratios varied between 4 and 13.60 in A horizons and between 7 and 14.31 in subsoils. Soils were acid pH (3.5 to 5.5). Basic cations Mg2+ varied from 0.08 to 1.11 cmol (+) kg-1soil in A horizons and between 0.02 and 1.25 cmol (+) kg-1soil in subsoils. High amounts of fine sand were observable in many soil horizons. Soil bulk density ranged from 791.49 to 1617.39 kg/m3 in A horizons and from 1125.84 to 3102.89 kg/m3 in subsoils.

In conclusion, although statistical analysis indicated no significant decrease in exchangeable Ca2+, K+, Na+ as a result of land disturbance, decrease was recorded and may have contributed to crop productivity decline. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in soil pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter, Mg2+ was statistically demonstrated to confirm that nutrients status was decreased due to land disturbance especially on hillside. This study recommends a general update of agricultural soils which have been disturbed so as to improve the accuracy of fertilizer recommendations and certainly result into a more sustainable agriculture in Rwanda.

Key words: Pedological characterization; morphological characteristics; mining activities; soil classification; Gatumba area; Rwanda

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Abstract # 81

Personalized Medicine and Efficiency of Generalized Targeted Clinical Trials

Aboubakar Maitournam

University Abdou Moumouni of Niamey, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques,                             Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Niamey, Niger.

Email: maitourna1@gmail.com

For a long time restricted to developed countries, cancer is nowadays also a real concern in, for example, the urban areas of Africa due to changes in diet, lifestyle and more generally to the so- called globalization. Furthermore, in terms of pure scientific research, cancer diseases are the driving forces, which boost the current genomic era and its corollaries as upcoming stratified and personalized medicines. The genomic era is impacting almost every scientific and technological field, and is characterized by massive generation of data. Thus, beyond its biological roots, genomics relies heavily in particular on mathematics in general, statistics, probabilities, data mining, computer sciences and imaging, but also on physics and chemistry, in a multidisciplinary way. In practice, the burgeoning field of genomic technologies can improve the diagnosis and treatment of numerous diseases in a targeted manner. Indeed, on the one hand, genomics-based technologies have proved that many common diseases are heterogeneous collections of molecularly distinct entities. On the other hand, molecularly targeted therapeutics is often effective only for a subset of patients with a conventionally defined disease. Consequently, the efficiency of targeted clinical trials is closely linked to the statistical design of phase III randomized clinical trials for the evaluation of a molecularly targeted treatment, when there is an assay predictive of which patients will be more responsive to the experimental treatment than to the control regimen.

We will first present the updated definitions of personalized medicine. Secondly, we will explore the connection between the latter with stratified medicine, targeted clinical trials efficiency and the big data paradigm. Thirdly, we will present the extension of targeted clinical trials efficiency by considering a further stratification of responder patients leading to a general formula of sample size calculation. Then, we will illustrate our findings on the relative efficiency of targeted clinical trials, in the case of two strata (responder versus non responder patients) with “real-world” examples. Finally, we will discuss the issues of assay sensitivity and specificity, prevalence of responder patients in the studied population and the implications of personalized medicine on African scientific research and policy.

Keywords: Patient profile; data health stream; personal health care; personalized predictive medicine; targeted clinical trials efficiency; stratified medicine; phase III clinical trials; big data; statistical sample size calculation; Gaussian distribution mixture; genotypes; assay sensitivity; assay specificity; genomics; pharmacogenomics; cancer.

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Abstract # 82

Docking studies of L-adrenaline onto the predicted three-dimensional model structure of Carbonic anhydrase II (P00918) from human, using computational methods

Mutangana Dieudonne*, Mugabe Robert, Gumizamu Caroline and Shyaka Blaise Pascal

University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, Department of Biology

*Corresponding Author: drmatured@gmail.com

 In order to understand the functions of a protein, it is very important to know its three-dimensional (3D) structure. Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and again its dehydration by an acid to produce carbon dioxide. CAII is involved in numerous other vital reactions, for example in pH regulation and exhaling carbon dioxide during respiration. L-adrenaline plays a big role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow in muscles. The focus of the present study was to predict the 3D model structure of CAII, assess its activation by L-adrenaline through a docking approach, and analyze interacting residues.

Computational methods are more advantageous than common wet lab methods because of their time and cost effectiveness. In this study Uniprot web server was accessed to retrieve the primary structure of CAII (FASTA sequence), PSI-BLAST tool, Phylip package, Swiss Model server, ERRAT, Procheck and Hex 8.00 software were used as tools to perform similarity searching, evolutionary relationship analysis, 3D structure prediction, model assessment and evaluation, and CA II activation pattern determination, respectively.

PSI-BLAST results showed high similarity score between the query sequence (P00918) and other putative proteins. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) results indicated highly conserved motifs between aligned and query sequences, while phylogenetic analysis suggested 4PQ7-A as a template protein for homology modeling due to its close relationship. Swiss Model was successful in predicting the 3D model structure of CAII. The predicted model was of good quality when subjected to assessment and evaluation by ERRAT and Procheck. Hex package has successfully docked the ligand L-adrenaline onto the receptor “CA II”. The negative binding energy (-195.77KJ Mol-1) was recorded and many interacting residues were obtained. Among these interacting residues, Histidine according to reports, is involved in the regulation of pH in the presence of zinc metal.

This study provided insight into the structure, function and interaction between carbonic anhydrase II when activated by L-adrenaline through a docking approach. However, the interaction might be refined by molecular dynamics simulation, which could not be attempted in this research due to lack of facilities.

Keywords: Sequence alignment; 3D structure prediction; carbonic anhydrase; computational methods; docking.

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Abstract # 83

Determination of Irrigation Water Using Soil Properties, Climatic Conditions and Crop Characteristics in Rugeramigozi Marshland

1Yves Uwiragiye*, 1Francois Xavier Naramabuye, 2Tamás Szegi and 2Erika Michéli
1 University of Rwanda, School of Agriculture, Rural Development and Agricultural Economics (SARDAE)

2 Szent István University
* Corresponding Author Email: uwyves@gmail.com

Inadequate natural resources management is one of the causes of food insecurity, which is a big challenge in the world today. Human activities are causing environmental degradation because of a highly growing population in developing countries, unsustainable agriculture, green house gases, and urbanization. High demand for agricultural product in coming years will be met by using land and water resources in sustainable way. It will further be met by increasing soil fertility and using efficiently irrigated land in adequate way because it has been shown that irrigated agriculture is making a great contribution to food security; it is also giving more than 40% of crop production having doubled in the last 50 years.

The problem of water management in irrigation projects is a critical issue. In many cases, too many farmers have a limited knowledge on the importance of soil properties on water application and water use efficiency.

The main objective of this paper is to calculate irrigation water needed by rice in its growing season based on soil properties, crop characteristics and climatic conditions in Rugeremigozi Marshland. In addition to this proposed main objective, this research also intended to describe and classify the soil of cultivated land.
In order to achieve the objective of this research, soil profiles description, soil analysis, pedo-transfer functions, soil classification and CROPWAT 8.0 and CLIMWAT 2.0 models of FAO were used for finding irrigation water requirements.
The results of this research found that there was a significant correlation between soil properties (bulk density, organic matter, and soil moisture potential) and gross irrigation. Asignificant relationship was found with crop evapotranspiration with irrigation water requirement.
In conclusion, soil properties, climatic conditions and crop characteristics showed a great effect on irrigation water of a specific crop.

Key words: Soil moisture content; crop water requirement; net irrigation; gross irrigation

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Abstract # 84

 Spatial-temporal Distribution of Mosquitoes and Risk of Malaria Infection in Rwanda

*Emmanuel Hakizimana1,2, Corine Karema3,4, Dunia Munyakanage1, John Githure5, Jean Baptiste Mazarati6 , John Eric Tongren7, Willem Takken2, Agnes Binagwaho 8,9,10 and Constantianus J.M.Koenraadt

1Malaria and Other Parasitic Diseases Division , Rwanda Biomedical Centre (RBC), Ministry of Health, Rwanda

2Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands

3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland

4University of Basel, Switzerland

5Abt Associates Inc. Integrated Vector Management Project, MOPDD,  Rwanda

6Biomedical Services Department, RBC, Kigali- Rwanda, Ministry of Health

7USAID/PMI Office, Kigali, Rwanda.

8Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

9Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, USA

10University of Global Health Equity, Kigali, Rwanda

* Corresponding author email: ehakizimana@gmail.com

 The purpose of this research is to determine the spatial and temporal variations of mosquitoes in the domestic environment, as well as to assess biting behavior and infection patterns of the main malaria vectors in Rwanda. Mosquitoes were collected monthly from 2010 to 2013 by human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in seven sentinel sites. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological characteristics and PCR. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection rates were determined using ELISA.

A total of 340,684 mosquitoes was collected by HLC and 73.8% were morphologically identified as culicines and 26.2% as anophelines. Of the latter, 94.3% were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 0.5% Anopheles funestus and 5.4% other Anopheles species. An. gambiae s.l. was the dominant group of anophelines in the collections, with An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. represented with 84.4% and 15.6%, respectively. The proportion of An. gambiae s.l. collected indoors was 51.3% in 2010 and 44.9% in 2013. A total of 17,018 mosquitoes was collected by PSC of which 20.5% were An. gambiae s.l. and 79.5% were culicines. The mean indoor resting density for An. gambiae s.l. ranged from 0.3-3.8 mosquitoes/house/night.  P. falciparum infection rates in mosquitoes varied from 0.87-4.06%. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) ranged from 1.0 to 329.8 with an annual average of 99.5 infective bites /person /year.

This longitudinal study shows, for the first time, the abundance, species composition, and entomological inoculation rate of malaria mosquitoes collected throughout Rwanda. The results suggest a high level of malaria transmission and a gradual shift in the dynamics of malaria vectors over time.

Key words: Mosquitoes’ spatio-temporal distribution; malaria infection risk; biting behavior; infection patterns; Rwanda

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Abstract # 85

Implementation of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Approach for Control of Malaria and Other Vector Borne Diseases: The Experience of Rwanda

*Emmanuel Hakizimana1,4, Dunia Munyakanage1, Kaendi Munguti3 and John Githure2 

1 Malaria and Other Parasitic Diseases Division (Mal & OPDD), Rwanda Biomedical Centre (RBC), Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda;

2 Abt Associates Inc. Integrated Vector Management Project, Kigali-Rwanda;

3U.S President’s Malaria Initiative, Kigali, Rwanda

4Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands

 * Corresponding author email: ehakizimana@gmail.com

Although Rwanda experienced an incremental increase of malaria incidence since 2013, the scaling-up of malaria control interventions carried up at the beginning of this era demonstrated a substantial impact on the burden of malaria. It was shown that the implementation of existing core vector control interventions using mainly long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) encountered many challenges towards effective control of vector-borne diseases and, thereafter,  require an urgent response. In recognition of the above challenges, the Government of Rwanda has embarked on development and implementation of an integrated vector management (IVM) strategy to ensure efficacy and sustainability of vector control efforts.

Thus, over the last 7 years, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has already transitioned to an integrated vector management (IVM) strategy. In 2010, the national vector control program was assessed with the aim to identify the prevailing gaps, the constraints and the opportunities to change specific drivers, which will be thereafter based on the five pillars of IVM. Specifically, systematic actions were taken to strengthen human resources via a combination of targeted training programs for national staff, entomology technicians based at sentinel sites, district administration, and community leadership. Additionally, long-term human resource development was emphasized (e.g. vector control post-graduate research in-country). A vector control system was built including: restructuring of national malaria control program to integrate a comprehensive vector-borne control for multiple diseases, a deliberative process for development of a national IVM policy framework and strategic plan, national insecticide resistance strategic plan, and a nationwide entomological surveillance program integrated into existing health centers. Furthermore, a modern central entomology laboratory and insectary was constructed in Kigali for molecular and biochemical characterization of disease vectors and parasites, and experimental huts were set up at Ruhuha, South-Eastern of Rwanda for semi-field evaluation of innovative vector control tools.

The results from these actions have been dramatic in the framework of evidence-based decisions. In situ capacity strengths are in place and include comprehensive local vector summaries, routine transmission indices, current insecticide resistance profiles, pesticide and LLINs quality control monitoring schemes and data from field experiments on innovative vector control tools such as Bti, new insecticides, mosquito repellents, etc… The above information empowered MoH, its partners and decentralized entities to self-direct community interventions and geographically target interventions. Nonetheless, there is more to be done, but we believe these action and policy modifications have placed Rwanda upon a strong foundation to implement vector control interventions in regards to the IVM principals and moving forwards to the sustained control of vector borne diseases and their elimination in the long term.

Keywords: Integrated vector management; malaria; vector-borne diseases; Rwanda

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Abstract # 86

Cellular Response Pattern in School-Aged Children Infected with Schistosomiasis Before and After Chemotherapy

*Edward Okonjo1, Dorcas Yole1 and 2Dorington Ogoyi

1Department of Applied and Technical Biology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

2Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

*Corresponding author email: tededward07@gmail.com

 Human Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that affects millions of people in as many as 78 countries globally. Children under the age of 14, with chronic disease suffer from anemia and malnutrition, which contribute to lost days at school and pervasive learning disabilities. Schistosomiasis induces multiple cellular and humoral responses, which have been known to correlate with the acute and chronic form of the disease.

This study sought to determine the cellular responses patterns in school-aged children (SAC) before treatment, and six and twelve weeks after treatment.

 Cytokine profiles of IL2, IL4, IL5, IL10, TNF, and IFNγ were determined in the serum samples by flow cytometry. The specific intensity of the cytokine expressed and intensity of the fluorescence were analyzed. Data was later subjected to statistical analysis to determine significant differences at P≤0.05. Comparison of cytokine levels before and after chemotherapy revealed a shift in the cytokine expression with down-regulation and up-regulation. All the cytokines except TNF showed a decline in their expression after six and twelve weeks of treatment. There were statistically significant differences in the expression in IL2, IL4, IL10 and IFNγ except in IL5 and TNF. Reduction in worm loads following treatment leads to a reduction in the expression of these cytokines. In addition there were possible cross regulatory effects in both the expression of Th1 and Th2 cells with IFNγ being affected by the expression of IL10. High concentration of IL5 and TNF in comparison to the other cytokines suggested that individuals may have been suffering from morbidity associated with S. mansoni infection.

We conclude that after treatment with PZQ, the cytokine levels reduced except for TNF, showing an immune response associated with therapeutic intervention and that the down regulation of the cytokines after chemotherapy is related to reduction of adult parasites and morbidity.

 Keywords: Schistosomiasis; immune response; chemotherapy

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Abstract # 87

Utilization of Maternal and Reproductive Health Services in Northern Uganda and Their Implications on Burden of Non-Communicable and Infectious Diseases

 1Emmanuel Candia*, 2,3Jonathan Izudi, 1Joanita Kirikumwino, 1Bob Bale Henrey, 1Madrine Aromorach Juliet, 1Emmanuel Okech, 4Barbra Akello Comfort, 5Boniface Oyoo, 6Sylvia Awor and 7Twalib Aliku Olega.

1Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda

2Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda

3International Health Sciences University, Kampala, Uganda

4Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Studies, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda

5Faculty of Education, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda

6Department of Reproductive Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda

7Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda

Corresponding author Email: candemmy2006@yahoo.co.uk

 Use of maternal and reproductive health services (MRHS) significantly reduces maternal morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and infectious diseases through timely screening; adequate child spacing, treatment and/or prophylaxis. However, utilization of MRHS remain low despite availability in Northern Uganda. We assessed the level and determinants of utilization of MRHS in Amuru and Gulu districts, Northern Uganda.

 In this cross-sectional study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 385 women of child bearing age (WCBA), ages 15-49 years, who were enrolled consecutively through house-to-house visits, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews with WCBA, village health team (VHT) members and midwives from four parishes. Adequate utilization was: modern family planning (MFP)-current use and no unmet need; or antenatal care (ANC)-attendance, first visit within first 12 weeks of pregnancy, at least four ANC visits, three doses of fansidar, two HIV tests and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccinations during their most recent pregnancy. Quantitative data was double-entered in EpiData and analyzed with STATA at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels. Level of statistical significance was 5%. Qualitative data was processed and thematically analyzed using ATLAS.ti.

 The mean age of the respondents was 27.5±6.79 years and the mean parity was 4±3. Of the 385 respondents, 332 (86.2%) were married, 346 (89.9%) were peasants, and 275 (71.4%) ended with primary education. 157 (40.8%) were using MFP and 122 (31.7%) had unmet need for MFP; 381 (99%) attended ANC, 79 (20.6%) had timely first ANC visit, 265 (68.8%) had at least four ANC visits, 242 (62.9%) had at least two HIV tests, 284 (73.8%) received at least two doses of TT vaccinations and only 95 (24.7%) received at least three doses of fansidar; giving overall utilization of 163 (42.3%; 95% CI: 36.1-49.4). Utilization of MRHS was associated with attainment of at least secondary level of education (APRR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.53-5.09; p=0.001); residing in the 3 parishes of Lacor (APRR=2.15; CI: 1.05-4.43; p=0.037), Padunyu (APRR=2.35; CI: 1.14-4.84; p=0.021) and Palema (APRR=2.47; CI: 1.23-4.95; p=0.011); 5-kilometer distance and above to the health facility (APRR=1.43; 95% CI: 1.07-1.92; p=0.016) and reporting difficulty in accessing health facility (APRR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.28-2.04; p<0.001).

We conclude that utilization of MRHS is low in Northern Uganda and expectant women in Northern Uganda are at increased risk of NCDs and infectious diseases. Mass sensitization and health education, increased resource allocation and improvement in women’s education are needed to enhance utilization.

 Key words: Maternal health; reproductive health, Northern Uganda, infectious diseases; Non communicable diseases.

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Abstract # 88

High Prevalence of Enterotoxins and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Producing Isolates Among Nasal Carriage Strains of S. aureus from Bukavu, DR Congo

Lupande DM1,2, Monecke S3, Khonde RK1, Cirezi BM1, NGOMA PK1, Muller E3, Ngwaka NM2, Reissig A3, Lunguya O2, Kabinda JM1 and Ehricht R3

1Hôpital Provincial Général de Référence de Bukavu, Université Catholique de Bukavu (UCB), Bukavu; Sud-Kivu, R.D. Congo.

2Service de Microbiologie, Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa (CUK), Université de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, R.D. Congo.

3Alere Technologies GmbH, Jena, Allemagne.

Corresponding author: lupande2000@gmail.com

Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections, are an important public health problem. Screening of carriers of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is an important factor in prevention. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of MRSA nasal carriage in Bukavu, as well as the virulence factors of nasal carriage isolates.

This is a cross-sectional, community-based analytical study, which took place in Bukavu from October 2015 to February 2016; A nasal swab was performed in all persons included in the study. Culture and identification of S. aureus were done by conventional methods. The Kirby-Bauer method was used for the antibiotic susceptibility test according to CLSI. Genotyping, resistance genes and virulence factors screening were performed by the DNA micro-arrays  method.

Three hundred and twelve people were included in this study. The median age was 24 years (1-71 years). The prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was 5.13% (16/312), MRSA carriage was not dependent on any risk factor (p-value> 0.05); 92% of strains were resistant to penicillin by blaZ gene expression; 30% of strains were resistant to Tetracycline by tetK gene expression, 100% of strains were susceptible to Augmentin. Levofloxacin, gentamicin and clindamycin had a susceptibility greater than 80%; 29% of strains were PVL+, more than 50% of strains were enterotoxinogen and hemolytic, 20% of strains expressed the edinB gene.

This study shows a high prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage in the community in Bukavu. Overall, strains are very sensitive to the usual antibiotics, even if they are highly enterotoxigenic and hemolytic; other risk factors must be sought later to understand this phenomenon.

Keywords. Bukav;, determinants; MRSA; nasal carriage; PVL; edinB gene.

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Abstract # 89

Multiresistant Germs in Suppurative Infections at the Provincial Referral Hospital   of Bukavu, DR Congo

*Lupande DM1,2, Bikubanya L1, Kabego L1,3, Khonde RK1,4, Kinunu FB1,   Ngoma PK1 and Lunguya OM2

1Provincial Referral Hospital of Bukavu, Catholic University of Bukavu, Bukavu, South-Kivu, DR Congo.

2Department of Microbiology, University Clinic of Kinshasa, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, DR Congo.

3Stellenbosch University, Department of Health Sciences, Republic of South Africa

4Department of Pediatrics, University Clinic of Kinshasa, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa XI; Kinshasa, DR Congo.

Corresponding Author  Email: lupande2000@gmail.com

Current management of suppurative infections is hampered by an increasing prevalence of multi-resistant strains. Management and control of multi-resistant germ infections go through surveillance and monitoring of bacteriologial data. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in germs isolated from suppurative infections at the Provincial Referral Hospital of Bukavu.

This is a cross-sectional and retrospective study. The socio-demographic data and the results of the laboratory analysis of patients admitted for consultation or hospitalization at the Provincial Referral Hospital of Bukavu for suppurative infections were collected from January 2014 to December 2016. Conventional microbiological methods had been performed, and the Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test by disc diffusion was used according to EUCAST 2015.

Of a total of 545 purulent secretions analyzed during our study period, 72.8% (396) have given positive cultures. Data from 249 strains were compiled and included in this study. The median age of patients was 25 years [0-72], with a sex ratio M/F of 1.4; S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter spp and Pseudomonas spp were the majority germs. 38.6% 95% CI (32.5-44.9) of identified germs had a multi-resistance phenotype (MDR); 10% 95% CI (4-21.5) of S. aureus were resistant to methicillin (MRSA). Vancomycin, imipenem, amikacin and cefepime were less resistant, with respectively 3%, 6%, 9.5% and 37% of resistance.

In conclusion, the prevalence of multi-resistant strains in purulent secretions is very high in our hospital and most of the usual antibiotics are not effective against these frequently isolated germs. Vancomycin, imipenem, amikacin and cefepime remain the antibiotics of the last resort and the most sensitive against these multiresistant strains frequently encountered in our study.

Keywords: Bukavu; MDR; MRSA; suppurations.

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Abstract # 90

The Impact of Herbal Medicines’ Use in Patients Under Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

*Kabayundo Jonsiane1 and Muganga Raymond2

1 Community pharmacy,EMMY Pharmacy, Kigali,Rwanda

2 University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Medicine and Pharmacy

* Corresponding Author: kajosia1990@gmail.com

Concurrent use of natural health products (NHPs) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is widespread among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients in search of treatments that will help rebuild the immune system, address drugs’ side effects, and perhaps even combat HIV. In Rwanda, it is sure that a large majority of the people still use resources of traditional medicine to solve health problems (MOH, 2010). However, few data are available about the possible impact of herbal medicine on HIV patients’ outcome. This study aimed at assessing possible effects of concomitant use of antiretroviral drugs and herbal medicines in Rwanda.

Patients from the Rango Health Center were interviewed and data were collected and analyzed.

We found that the majority of the participants(67.3%) reported that they use herbal medicines either before or after starting antiretroviral therapy, and 29.85% reported that they use herbal medicines  along with antiretroviral drugs. The mostly used plants by patients were Tetradenia riparia (24.76 %) followed by Vernonia amygdalina (16.61%), Ocimumum suave (12.22%), Aloe sp (3.76%), Leonitisne ptaefolia (2.82%), Psidium guajava (2.5%), Vernonia lasiopus (2.19%), Eucalyptus sp (2.19%), and Trapaelum majus (1.88%). Gastric irritation, severe nausea, diarrhea, constipation, lack of appetite, worsening of disease status and even treatment change have been reported in 6.71% of  all patients who have used traditional medicines. From all patients who have used traditional medicines 66.6% of them were using herbal medicine along with antiretrovirals among whom 44.4% changed their ARV regimens. Disease improvement has also been reported in 85.93% of patients who have used herbal medicines along with antiretroviral drugs.

We conclude that concomitant herbal medicines’ use with antiretroviral drugs may affect drugs’ pharmacokinetics parameters and patients’ outcome. Further studies are needed to determine possible interactions of the used herbal medicine’s constituents and antiretretroviral drugs.

Keywords: Herbal medicine; HIV patients; traditional medicine; herbal interactions

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Abstract # 91

Characterization of Q146Y0 Protein from Burkholderia Xenororans Using in silico Methods.

 Mutangana Dieudonne*, Mutabazi Innocent and Mary W Maina

University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, department of Biology

*Corresponding Author email: drmatured@gmail.com

Protein characterization has been very useful in discovering the protein structure and their functions in plants and human lives.  In silico, in vivo and in vitro Experiments are current methods used in protein characterization  but It has been found that In vivo and in vitro methods are Time consuming and very entitled to Errors from contamination therefore  it is in this regard that in silico methods were preferred during this Research project.

 This research project reports the in silico characterization of protein with accession number Q146Y0 which is found in bacteria Bulkholderia Xenororans. The in silico method is defined as the use of computational packages, servers and database in different research experiments including protein sequence analysis and characterization.

Uniprot database was first used to retrieve the amino acid sequence of the target protein while QUARK program was used to predict the protein 3D structure by De novo method. SWISS PDB viewer was used to visualize the predicted 3D protein model, measuring distances, and torsion angles between atoms. The Evaluation of the predicted 3D structure was done by accessing different online servers namely Procheck, Errat and Expacy Protparam. Protfun 2.2 server was used in functional prediction of the target protein.

Primary structure analysis by Expacy Protparam revealed physiochemical parameters which indicated that it is basic in nature and it may be stable for a wide range of temperature. Secondary structure analysis by PDB viewer indicated that this protein consists of seven alpha helices which are joined together by coils.

The assessment results by Procheck and ERRAT servers indicated that the predicted 3D model of the protein was of acceptable limits. The results from functional prediction by using Protfun 2.2 server  demonstrated that the protein is non enzyme and is involved in structure function protein transport and binding molecules, to name a few.

The in silico characterization of protein with accession number Q146Y0 helped in protein primary and secondary structure analysis, 3D structure prediction and  functional prediction but more research concerning this protein is also recommended.

Key wards: in silico method; computational tools; De novo method; physiochemical parameters

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Abstract # 92

Yield and Yield Components of Four Nerica Rice Varieties as Affected by Applications of Farmyard Manure and NPK Fertilizer

1Odhiambo Ma* and 1Muui C

1Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

Presenting author email: odhiambom2012@gmail.com

Food insecurity threatens the livelihood of African rural households who rely on cereal crops as staple food.  New Rice for Africa (NERICA) are rain-fed rice varieties that require little moisture, are early maturing and high yielding with a good response to fertilizer inputs.  This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combining farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic NPK fertilizer on the yield and yield components of four NERICA rice varieties (NERICA 1, 4, 10 and 11).

Field experiments were conducted between March and July, 2015 at Agricultural Training Center, Siaya County, Kenya using a completely randomized block design. Each block measured 2 by 1 meters with three treatment replicates.  Treatments were: No fertilizer, FYM (10 tonnes/hectare), recommended NPK fertilizer (60kg N, 30kg P2O5, 30kg K2O), combination of FYM + NPK (½ FYM + ½ NPK).  Top soil of experimental site and FYM were sampled and tested separately for their physical and chemical properties before planting.

Statistical data analysis was done by ANOVA and means separated by LSD method at 5% significance level.  Application of fertilizer on different NERICA varieties significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected plant height, tillers per plant, panicles m-2, 1000-grain weight, and yield of NERICA.  Superior characteristics for most of the measured parameters such as plant height (120 cm), tillers per plant (22), panicles m-2 (325), 1000- grain weight(29.8 g), biological yield (10,500 kg/ha), grain yield (5600 kg/ha) and harvest index  (44.5%) were recorded with integrated FYM + NPK application.

Among the varieties, NERICA 11 recorded the highest grain yield (5550 3kg/ha), tillers per plant (21.5), and panicles m-2 (324.5).  Maximum plant height (120 cm) and 1000-grain weight (28.9g) were obtained from NERICA 4.  These show that integrated application of NPK + FYM can maintain and boost productivity of NERICA rice, thus alleviating food insecurity.

Key words: NERICA rice; Organic fertilizer; Inorganic fertilizer; Yield, and yield components.

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Abstract # 93

Microbial Identification of Potato from Rwandan Coffee Beans Taste Defect

*Ndayambaje Jean Bernard, Martin Ongol, Dushime Sylvie and Ishimwe Florence

University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, Chemistry Department

*Corresponding Author’s email: ndayambajejbk999@gmail.com

Coffee is a socio-economic important plant all over the world due to its exportation and how it provides income to the farmers and the country. However, potato taste defect (PTD) affects the Rwandan coffee quality. The smell is reported to be caused by some microorganisms (bacteria) that are responsible for the off-flavor and may also be caused by a pest.

The aim of this study was to isolate, biochemically characterize, and identify bacteria-producing potato flavor from Rwandan coffee.

Five samples were obtained from different regions (Nyamasheke and Nyakizu) of Rwanda. Bacteria were isolated and enumerated in the nutrient agar media followed by culture on nutrient and tryptic soy broth media. Bacteria were also cultured in several carbon sources such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, pectin and galactose to smell the odor produced by those bacteria. DNA extraction of isolates was done and the resulting DNA strands underwent three steps of polymerase chain reaction to be amplified using the Forward Primer (5’AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3′) and Reverse Primer (5’-GGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3’). The identification of bacteria producing potato flavor from Rwandan coffee beans was done through 16S rDNA method followed by sequence analysis using finchtv software and BLAST.

Earthy odor was mostly produced in all media and carbon sources but potato flavor was recorded mostly from damaged floaters and hand sorted damaged coffee beans. However, other odors such fruity and ferment were found in coffee beans to be produced by bacteria in coffee beans.

The study concluded that the presence of different kinds of bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae and Pantoea, which are responsible for the formation of Isopropyl-2- methoxyl-3-pyrazine (IPMP) in coffee beans and cause the production of the potato flavor.

Key words: Potato taste defect; coffee Arabica; 16S rDNA; polymerase chain reaction.

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Abstract # 94

Study of Cultural Impact of ex-situ Conservation Facilities on the Population in the Lubumbashi Region and Perspectives for Growing Involvement of these Structures in information and Sensitization on Environmental Protection

Tshikung, Ki

Author’s email: didiertshikung@yahoo.fr

Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the regions of the word offering the most important biodiversity. However, as a consequence of the overexploitation of natural resources, mostly due to insufficient respect and ignorance of the legislation concerning environmental protection, forests biodiversity tends to deteriorate in the Congo.

Information and environmental education of urban and rural populations appear as essential to support in-situ conservation actions. This study took place in Lubumbashi. It revealed a deficiency in the common awareness of the legislation concerning environmental protection, the risk of disappearance and the conservation of endangered species. Furthermore, the cultural impact of ex-situ conservation structures in this region appeared as insufficient.

Finally, this study led to a project of global involvement of ex-situ conservation structures in the Lubumbashi region through information and sensitization actions for the whole Lubumbashi’s population, adapted to the target public and to the expectations of visitors, and sorted by priority.

Keywords: Conservation facilities; cultural impact; growing involvement; information and sensitization; environmental protection; Congo.

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Abstract # 95

Consumption of Bushmeat at Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo: Sociocultural Approaches

Tshikung, K.M.

Author’s email: didiertshikung@yahoo.fr

Bushmeat is frequently consumed in the households of the city of Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Several studies in Africa show that this foodstuff is regularly consumed by the rural and urban populations. This consumption is motivated by several reasons. Those reasons were never clarified in the city of Lubumbashi.

This study has for its goal to highlight the sociocultural aspects which justify the consumption of the bushmeat to envisage its durability. An investigation was led with 1400 households in the municipalities of the city. A survey allowed collecting the information, which was presented in the form of percentage.

It emerges from this information that 86,6 % of the population consumes monthly bushmeat (41.3%). This consumption rests on taste (51.7 %). On the other hand, religious beliefs (29.2 %) prevent this consumption.

The order of artiodactyls is the most affected (74.2 %). The recognition of the consummate species comes from information supplied by the sellers (58.5 %). The bushmeat comes from Haut-Katanga’s district (35.2 %). It is sold in the main markets of the city of Lubumbashi (67.9%).

 Bushmeat is becoming an exhaustible natural resource. Mechanisms and alternatives must be set up to allow the sustainable preservation of the wild animal species from which the meat is obtained.

Keywords: Bushmeat; sociocultural aspects; durability; sustainable preservation; Democratic republic of Congo.

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Abstract # 96

Health Care Technology Training

June Madete

Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

Email: madete.june@ku.ac.ke

Health technologies are considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be essential for ensuring that health systems operate at the level required for sustainable improvement in the health of individuals and populations. Africa lacks the skills needed to design, produce, install, maintain, manage and upgrade health technologies, leaving it reliant on foreign technical expertise. It is imperative that Africa develop a strong health technology research and development base, grounded in an understanding of the African context, to support needs-based health technology innovation for better health on the continent.

The need to produce skilled biomedical engineers is commonly recognized but it differs depending on the interest of the institutions involved. For instance, most of the early efforts in Africa seem to have focused on the training of technicians that could maintain medical devices in good working conditions. Technicians and technologists play a pivotal role in maintenance and safe use of medical devices, however, there is a demand for a more comprehensive approach to skills training and development of biomedical engineering human capital. These programmes cover a wide range of engineering, medical science, software programming and entrepreneurship courses, among others. In general, these courses are specifically designed to develop a broad-base of requisite skills in planning, procurement, designing, installing, commissioning, maintaining, decommissioning and safely disposing of biomedical devices.

The discipline of biomedical engineering has the potential to play a strong developmental role in Africa by producing graduates skilled in the development of health technologies who can make a contribution towards enhancing health care. The challenge is to develop a strategy to get Biomedical Engineering adopted and recognized as a strong Engineering field in East Africa by the Policy makers as vital and necessary specialization for the region.

Key Words: Health care technology; design; production; installation; maintenance; management; upgrade.

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Abstract # 97

Building Public-Health Research Capacity on Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases through Romania – USA cooperation.

*Radu Pirlog1, Marina Dascal2 and Razvan M. Chereches3

1 Radu Pirlog * – Research Technician, Cluj-School of Public Health, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca Romania.

2 Marina Dascal – Research Technician, Cluj-School of Public Health, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca Romania.

3 Prof. Dr. Razvan M. Chereches – Head of Department, Cluj-School of Public Health, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca Romania.

* Corresponding Author Email: radu.pirlog@publichealth.ro

 This study is based on the following research question: what extent can we build population-driven research capacity in the field of non-communicable chronic diseases n Romania, a middle-income country with a low performance national public health system?

Our hypothesis was that following the transition years of 1989-1991, the population evidence-based approach to the public health system in Romania was missing. Nowadays, non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) account for approximately 90% of all deaths in Romania, 61% of all deaths are caused by diseases of the circulatory system and 16% by cancer. We present a model for improving NCD research capacity through a capacity-building program that aims to train scientists in the prevention and management of NCDs in Romania, using a population-based approach with a strong research focus through bilateral collaboration between Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania and the University of Iowa, USA.

In order to achieve the purpose of the project, 4 types of trainings were developed: long-term training (PhD level), intermediate-term training (5 months – MPH level), , short-term training (2 to 6 weeks) and short-term equivalent distance trainings (online courses). Also, returning trainees who participated in intermediate-term or long-term trainings were able to get support for a pilot-research project conducted jointly with faculty mentors.

Our results indicate that during the implementation period of the project a number of 26 researchers from CHPPH participated in training programs at the University of Iowa, 3 pilot-research projects were funded for returning trainees and 8 articles and presentations were published until now.

We managed to train a cadre of experts able to assess the magnitude of the main NCD’s from Romania such as cancer, cerebro-vascular diseases and lung diseases who are able to build research projects that address these issues and translate research results into public health policy and into programs of care that will improve the national public-health system in the following years.

We will present a working model for strengthening the research capacity required for success in public-health through training, research, networking, workshops and institutional collaboration with international partners

Key words: Research; Training; Public-Health; Romania

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Abstract # 98

 Synchronization of Patient Data Among Health Facilities Through Electronic Medical Records System: A Case Study of Kabgayi District Hospital.

 Charite Niyitegeka and Jean Paul Niyoyita

 1 University of Rwanda, Department of Health Informatics

*Corresponding author: niyicharite@gmail.com

The use of modern information technology in healthcare is to increase the reliability, accessibility and productivity of service delivery in a health system. However, in most developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, sharing data and reporting has been dominated by paper-based data collection and storage and this reduces the quality services in the health sector. The aim of this research is to identify the factors associated with poor synchronization of patient data flow in health facilities.

In this observational study design, a quantitative and qualitative approach was used to meet the objectives through retrospective information on electronic medical records (EMR) data sharing. Pre-defined variables like strategy approach, innovation, and data synchronization in the system was evaluated. A census method was conducted in the HIV/ART Department focusing on the EMR system. The total population of this study was 42. Including health providers, the EMR information technology (IT) manager, the medical doctor, nurses, data managers from health centers and supervisors from the health centers. We used a purpose method to select the research participants.

The results of this study showed that healthcare professionals prefer using the EMR for data sharing rather than using a paper-based method. The study also showed that the outcome of EMRs increased the quality of healthcare deliveries. The results showed that the EMR system was intended to share information at different facilities, however, according to the results, this is not possible because the system currently provides different patients’ identifications.

 Based on the findings, there is a need to synchronize the system so that all patients and caregivers from different places can easily access and use patients’ information.

Keywords: Electronic medical records; health facility, data synchronization

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Abstract # 99

Semi-Continuous Fermentation of a Thermotolerant and High Acetic Acid Producing Acetobacter pasteurianus Bacterium

*Mounir Majid1,3, Hamouda Allal2,  Philippe Thonart3, Ismaili Alaoui Mustapha1 and Frank Delvigne3

1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (IAV), Rabat, Morocco

2Department of Applied Statistics, Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (IAV), Rabat, Morocco

3Microbial Processes and Interactions, University of Liège – Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech,

B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium

*Corresponding Author: mounirmajid@gmail.com

Among 63 strains isolated from fruits and homemade vinegars from different ecosystems of Morocco, a thermotolerant bacterium with high production of acetic acid was selected and evaluated for its ability to perform efficient acetous fermentation at high temperature in a bioreactor. CV01 strain, isolated from cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), was considered to be an Acetobacter pasteurianus sp. according to phylogenetic study based on 16s rDNA gene sequence analysis.

An optimal culture medium containing initial concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol of 1% (v/v) and 4% (v/v), respectively, was used. The growth kinetics of this isolate were monitored in flasks and compared with those of the wild type LMG 1625 mesophilic strain and the thermoresistant Acetobacter senegalensis reference strain. The CV01 strain exhibited abundant growth along with high amount of produced acetic acid at high temperature (41°C). Subsequently, a 20-L stirred tank bioreactor was used to assess thermotolerance and acidoresistance properties of the selected strain during semi-continuous acetic acid fermentation at 38°C.

Interestingly, a total amount of 13.4% (w/v) acetic acid was yielded at the end of fermentation. Moreover, this bacterium could produce during the same fermentation process a final concentration of 11.2 g/L gluconic acid, a sensory quality indicator in vinegar production. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that CV01 strain exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation.

Key words: Thermoresistance, acetic acid; gluconic acid; fermentation; vinegar.

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Abstract # 100

 Genomic Breeding of Orphan Crops for Improved Food Security and Nutrition in Africa: Opportunities, Targets, Applications, and Challenges

Enoch G. Achigan-Dako1, I. Hale2, O.D. Sogbohossou1,3, H. Degbey1, E. Schanz3, R.H. Mumm4, A. Van Deynze5, R. Kahane6, D. This7, Dedeou Tchokponhoue1, Charlotte A. Adje1, Carlos Houdegbe1, W. Abtwe Gebreselassie8, O. Happiness9, L. Akundabweni10, H. Zohoungbogbo1, F. Akohoue1, and J. Sibiya11

1 Laboratory of Genetics, Horticulture and Seed Sciences, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, BP 2549 Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin

2 Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 03824

3 Biosystematics Group, Wageningen University, Postbus 647 6700AP, Wageningen, Netherlands

4 Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801

5 Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, USA, 95616

6 Agricultural Research for Development, CIRAD, Avenue Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France

7 Montpellier SupAgro 2, place Pierre Viala, 34060, Montpellier Cedex 02, France

8 Jimma University, Ethiopia

9 Ebonyi State University, Nigeria

10 Namibia University, Namibia

11 University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, South Africa

With the ever-growing population size, food and nutrition insecurity has become a  bigger challenge in sub-Saharan Africa though the continent is endowed with a rich agricultural diversity that can be valued to overcome hunger and poverty. To this end, radical transformation of a largely underdeveloped agriculture is required over the next decades. In addition, increasing agricultural productivity among resource-poor farmers should go with no or little exacerbation of environmental problems while simultaneously coping with climate change, a critical force driving low agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa.

 With the new advance in genomics, new opportunities arise. Genomics is a precise, quick, non-expensive technology that complements classic breeding approaches. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge and use of plant genomics for orphan crops and propose ways forward to implement genomic-enabled breeding to develop high yielding cultivars, pest and disease resistant lines, climate-smart breeding populations. Orphan crops of interest include Amaranthus cruentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa (vegetables), Colocasia esculenta, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (roots), Digitaria exilis (cereal), Synsepalum dulcificum (fruit), Vigna subterranean, and Macrotyloma geocarpum (legumes).

 Major steps in genome-enabled breeding are identified and discussed for each species. Steps include: 1) Understanding the reproductive biology and mating systems that increase genetic gains; 2) Proper definition of breeding objectives and target products in line with farmers and consumers’ needs and to adapt to climate hazards; 3) Inventory of available genetic resources and re-assessing genepool and germplasm for additional collections to increase geographical coverage; 4) Phenotyping and genotyping germplasm for economic and added value traits; 5) Genomic selection and molecular breeding of cultivars to increase accuracy and reduce selection cycle; 6) multi-environmental testing and end-users’ evaluation; and 7) Strengthening crop value chains to increase productivity and utilization.

 With genomic breeding new opportunities in the agribusiness sector will rise up to accelerate the positive transformation of African agriculture.

Key Words: Orphan crops; Molecular breeding; Food and nutrition security; Germplasm; Capacity building; Improved cultivars; Biotic and abiotic stresses.

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Abstract # 101

Influence of the Application of Natural Phosphate Rocks on the Performances of Direct Seeding Mulch-Based Cropping System Using Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Swartz as Cover Crop in the Conditions of the Batéké Plateau (Kinshasa Province, DRC).

 B.P. Bulakali1*, J. Aloni2 and G. Mergeai3

1Université de Kinshasa, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Biologie, RDC

2Université de Kinshasa, Faculté des Sciences, Département des Sciences de la Terre, RDC

3Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro Bio-Tech, Laboratoire d’Agroécologie tropicale et Horticulture, Gembloux, Belgique

Corresponding-author e-mail: bulapaci@yahoo.fr

In order to develop a direct seeding mulch-based cropping system (DSMS) adapted to the conditions of the Batéké plateau, Stylosanthes guianensis (Stylo) was used as cover crop in a trial conducted during five years at two sites.

 In both experimental locations, cassava was installed in November 2009 and Stylo a month later. From the second year onwards, a local variety of Maize was sown each year at the beginning of the long rainy season (October) and Stylo was the sole crop growing on the soil during the short rains (from February to May). In order to produce the mulch in which maize was directly seeded, Stylo cover was cut and deposited on the ground in August each year. Four treatments were compared: (i) DSMS1 with 0 kg P ha-1(phosphate rocks), (ii) DSMS2 with 50 kg P ha-1, (iii) DSMS3 with 100 kg P ha-1, and (iv) a control consisting in a rotation involving the same crops (cassava followed by four years of maize) but without Stylo permanent cover and without fertilizer application. The following cassava varieties used were: Zizila (DSMS1), TME 419 (DSMS2), Butamu (DSMS3), and RAV (control).

 After 5 years of continuous cultivation (2014), the total grain yield of Maize of the control was nil (0 kg ha-1) in both sites while the yields obtained for the DSMS1 were all higher than 1150 kg ha-1. DSMS2 was the most productive in both locations with 2613 kg grain ha-1 in The Way and 2289 kg grain ha-1 in Neema. The total biomass of Maize and Stylo were correlated with grain yields. The continuous sole cropping induced a significant decrease of the content in C, N, P, and Mg of the soil. The possible reason of the superiority of DSMS2 is discussed according to the characteristics of the soil, the cropping systems compared, and of the two experimental sites.

 Keywords: Direct seeding mulch; cropping system; Democratic Republic of Congo

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Abstract # 102

Response of Coffee Genotypes to Regeneration From Callus

*Aline Tuyishime1, Simon Martin Mvuyekure2, Joseph Nsengimana3 and Antoine Nsabimana4

1 Aline Tuyishime, School of Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda

2 Simon Martin Mvuyekure, Rwanda Agriculture Board, P.O.Box 5016 Kigali, Rwanda

3 Joseph Nsengimana, School of Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda, P.O.Box 3900 Kigali Rwanda

4 Antoine Nsabimana, School of Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda, P.O.Box 3900 Kigali Rwanda

Corresponding Author Email: tutualine3@gmail.com

In vitro plant tissue culture is a method used in biotechnology to produce the plantlets from cells in short period as compared to in vivo culture. Plant growth depends on the age of the mother plant, growth regulators, tissue source, plant physiology and the genotype. Coffee genotypes respond differently to clonal multiplication due to the variation of their gene make-up. Thus, there is lack of universal tissue culture protocol for coffee genotypes.

 This study aimed to evaluate the response of coffee genotypes to in vitro multiplication. The study was conducted from 1 July 2016 to 1 April 2017 at the Rwanda Agriculture Board. Seven coffee genotypes F1 (BM139×5A, Harrar×6A, BM139×Catimor, Jackson ×6A, BM139×Batian, BM139×Ruiru, BM139×6A) were evaluated for the callus induction and regeneration. Six parameters were measured on germination capacity: embryo formed, germination rate,number of leaves, root length, rooting rate, and shoot length. Coffee leaves were used as explants using the MS (Murashige and skoog) medium supplemented with 5ml of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) for inititiation and 2 ml of IBA(Indole-3-Acetic Acid ) for germination.

 Data were analyzed with analysis for variance and Duncan new range test using Genstat 17. Coffee genotypes were similar in callus induction and number of embryo formed, but they differed significantly in germination parameters. Therefore, for mass production, a multiplication protocol should be optimized for specific coffee genotypes.

 Key words: Coffee genotypes, In vitromultiplication, MS medium.

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Abstract # 103

Biotechnology in Agriculture: Influences on Human Health and Environmental Health

Rosalie Uwayezu

University pf Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health

Author’s Email: uwayezurosalie@yahoo.fr

Over the past decades, the world has been facing challenges of food insecurity. Researchers have shown that 854 million people all over the world are undernourished but 96% of those people are from developing countries.

The aim of this study was to understand the impacts of biotechnology on human health and agricultural productivity. A systematic article and reports review was done on Google scholar and PubMed; the searching words were: health, developing world, biotechnology in agriculture, and environmental health. They showed that 96% of undernourished cases are in the developing world. In Africa 1/3 of those cases are undernourished,1/4 are underweight children, and 1/3 are stunted children. Use of biotech crops in agriculture greatly contributes to poverty relief and food insecurity alleviation in developing countries. Biotech crops have a significant contribution in the promotion of human health by improving food production which, in turn, reduce malnutrition. It also improves farmer’s health by reducing their exposure during pesticides’ spraying.

Biotech crops also contribute in environmental health promotion by reducing the use of pesticides by farmers, and reducing greenhouse gases emissions (due to the use of fossil fuels), etc. Agricultural biotechnology provides significant benefits to farmers including increased crop yields and lower input costs. It also has the potential to make essential contributions for solving food and agricultural issues, and addressing human health, environmental health, and economic issues in the developing world. Further, biotechnology enables improvements that are not possible with traditional farming itself.

Further research should be done for assessing the impacts of biologically modified food on health.

Key words: Biotechnology; health; developing world.

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Abstract # 104

Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) Regeneration by Cuttings: Comparative Study of Planting Methods of Culm Cuttings at UR-CAVM Busogo Campus Tree Nursery

Twagirayezu Leandre, Ntawenderundi David and Nduwamungu Jean*

University of Rwanda, School of Agricultural Engineering and Environmental Management (SAEEM), College of Agriculture, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation
*Corresponding Author Email: jeanduwa@gmail.com
Bamboo is one of the fastest growing and highest yielding renewable resource with multiple uses in the world. Lack of seedlings in sufficient number has generally been a major constraint in establishing more bamboo plantations.

This study investigated the efficiency of regenerating Bambusa vulgaris through cuttings at Busogo Sector, Musanze District, using vertical and horizontal methods with and without water treatment.

 The experiment consisted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications. The growth and sprouting of the 64 cuttings were monitored for three months and 18 days (105 days).

 In terms of planting method, the horizontal planting method showed best sprouting percentage of 68%. In terms of treatment used, the horizontal planting method without using water treatment showed slightly better sprouting percentage of 60%. The results further show that about 87% of sprouts had between 0 and 30 cm height and 98% of sprouts had basal diameter ranging from 0 to 20 mm only 105 days after planting. Indeed, the horizontal planting methods provided highest survival rate of sprouts than the vertical planting method (53%) of planted cuttings. Furthermore, the results show that 105 days after planting, cuttings with horizontal method were more productive in terms of root development. In terms of planting method using water treatment, the horizontal planting method with water treatment showed highest rooting percentage (53%).

 We conclude that farmers should be trained and encouraged to use the horizontal planting method using water treatment in order to get better results in regenerating bamboo through cuttings.

Key words: Bamboo; bamboo regeneration; culm cuttings; planting methods of cuttings

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Abstract # 105

Effect of Long-Term Application Of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Microbial Population and Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen in Volcanic Highland Region of Western Rwanda

*Hamudu Rukangantambara and Julienne Gatesi

*Corresponding Author Email: hamudu25@gmail.com

Soil microbial population and biomass are the main driving force in the decomposition of organic minerals. They are frequently used as an early indicator of changes in soil properties resulting from soil management and environment stress in agricultural ecosystem.

The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial population, biomass carbon and nitrogen over a long time at Busogo  sector, Musanze District, Rwanda.

Tithonia diversifolia, Alnus accuminata and erythrina  abyssinica  were applied as organic resources, and urea was employed as an inorganic source.  Soil was sampled at 0-25 cm depth before applying fertilizer, thereafter, and at harvesting. Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were determined by the fumigation extraction method while carbon evolution was measured by the fumigation incubation method.

The results indicated a general increase in soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide evolution in the two seasons with the control recording having a lower value than in all the other treatments. Microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide evolution was affected by both  the quality of the inputs added  and the time of plant growth. The tithonia  recorded relatively higher values of microbial  biomass carbon, nitrogen, and carbon evolution than all the other treatments. A significant difference was recorded between the control and organically treated soils at the two seasons for the microbial biomass nitrogen and carbon dioxide  evolution. Both the microbial biomass C and N showed a significant difference P<,005 in the difference months of the two seasons.

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Abstract # 106

Comparison Study of Effect of Conservation Tillage on Soil Organic Matter Fractions in Wheat – Irish Potato System in the Northwestern Highland Region of Rwanda

Hamoud Rukangantambara

Author’s email: hamudu25@gmail.com

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and its labile fractions are strong determinants of chemical, physical, and biological properties, and soil quality. The highland region in northwest Rwanda is one of the most eroded landscapes in Rwanda. Alternative practices may be evaluated to control soil erosion.

Our purpose was to determine how three different tillage practices for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affected soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content in three sites: Congo-Nile divide, Volcanic  and Buberuka highland.

Conventional tillage (CT) with residue removal, shallow tillage (ST) with residue cover, and no-tillage (NT) with residue cover were investigated. Carbon and nitrogen in various aggregate-size classes and various labile organic C fractions in the 0-15  and 15-30-cm soil layers were evaluated. The ST and NT treatments had 14.2 and 13.7% higher SOC stocks and 14.1 and 3.7% higher total NT stocks than CT in the upper 15cm, respectively. Labile C fractions: particulate organic C (POC), permanganate oxidizable C (KMnO₄-C), hot-water extractable C (HWC), microbial biomass C (MBC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were all significantly higher in NT and ST than in CT in the upper 15cm. KMnO₄-C, POC and HWC were the most sensitive fractions to tillage changes. The portion of 0.25-2mm aggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) of aggregates from ST and NT treatments were larger than from CT at both 0-15- and 15-30-cm soil depths. The ST and NT treatments had significantly higher SOC and Nt in the 0.25-2mm fraction at both depths and significantly higher Nt content in the upper 15cm. Positive significant correlations were observed between SOC, labile organic C fractions, MWD, GMD, and macro-aggregate (0.25-2mm) C within the upper 15cm.

We conclude that both variants of conservation tillage (NT and ST) increase SOC stock in the high rainfall areas of northern-west Rwanda and are therefore more sustainable practices than those currently being used.

Keywords: Conservation tillage; conventional tillage; narrow tillage; no tillage; soil organic matter; Irish potatoe system; Rwanda.

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Abstract # 107

Molecular Weight and Trace Metal Distributions in Fulvie and Humic Acid Fractions of Volcanic Soil in Musanze District, Rwanda

*Hamudu Rukangantambara and Julienne Gatesi

University of Rwanda – CAVM (?), Busogo Campus

* Correspnding Author Email: hamudu25@gmail.com

The quality of humus substances plays an important role for soil organisms, which affects the properties and functions of soil. Moreover, humus is an important part of soils where the more important parameter is quality rather than quantity. Qualitative indicator of humus in the soil is the ratio of humic acids (HK) and fulvic acids (FK) through  their  respective  molecular weight distribution. In the case of the ratio HK:FK lower than 1, fulvic acids predominate in the soil and humus is of poor quality. It is therefore important to monitor changes in content.

 Humus substances were extracted from soil by the Na4P2O7 solution method at 0-15 cm depth.  Molecular weight and trace metal distributions of fulvic and humic acid fractions of volcanic soil were assessed by using a gel filtration technique in combination with spectrophometry. A binary molecular weight distribution was found both in the fulvic acid fraction and in the humic acid fraction. The fulvic acid fractions with molecular weights of less than 1.6×103 and of 6×103−104 accounted for 38–56 % and 22–47 % of the total fulvic acids, respectively, and the humic acid fractions with molecular weights of 103−105 and of over 2×106 accounted for 57–83 % and 17–28 % of the total humic acids, respectively. The components with molecular weights of over 1.6×103 contained 56 %, on average, of the Fe, Zn and Cu in the fulvic acid fraction, and the components with molecular weights of over 104 contained 56 %, on average, of these metals in the humic acid fraction.

 Key words: Molecular weights; humic acid; fulvic acid and quality

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Abstract # 108

 Application of siRNA targeting pat-10 and unc-87 in the Plant Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne graminicola.

*Joseph Nsengimana, Lander Bauters, Annelies Haegeman  Antoine Nsabimana  and Godelieve Gheysen

University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, Biology Department

*Corresponding Author Email: josephnsenga01@gmail.com

Until recently, the standard method for RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetics in plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) was based on the use of long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In this  research, gene-specific knockdown of Mg-pat-10 and Mg-unc-87 of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola was applied, using discrete 21bp siRNAs.

The homologue of Mg-pat-10 in C. elegans encodes body wall troponin C, which is essential for muscle contraction, whereas the homologue of Mg-unc-87 encodes two proteins involved in maintenance of the structure of myofilaments in the body wall muscle of C. elegans.

The knockdown at the transcript level, as seen by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, showed that the Mg-pat-10 gene was silenced after soaking the nematodes in a specific siRNA for 48 h. At 72 h post-soaking, the Mg-pat-10 mRNA level was similar to the control, indicating the recovery of expression between 48 h and 72 h post-soaking. For Mg-unc-87 the nematodes started to recover from siRNA silencing 24 h after thorough washing. A migration assay showed that for the nematodes that were soaked in the control (siRNA of β-1,4-endoglucanase), 77% of the nematodes completed migration through the column in a 12 h period. By comparison with the control, nematodes incubated in the siRNA of pat-10 or unc-87 were significantly inhibited in their motility. After 12 h, only 6.3% of the juveniles incubated in the Mg-pat-10 siRNA and 9.3% of those incubated in Mg-unc-87 siRNA had migrated through the column, representing 91.8% and 87.9% inhibition respectively compared to the control.

In the present work, we demonstrated that   
M. graminicola is readily susceptible to siRNAs of two genes involved in nematode motility. This is an important contribution to the progressive use of siRNA for functional analysis. Moreover, the application of RNAi in PPNs opens the way for environmentally friendly control of M. graminicola.

Keywords: Short interfering RNA (siRNA); Meloidogyne graminicola (Mg); Mg-pat-10; Mg-unc-87; migration assay; expression analysis

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Abstract # 109

Gender Participation in the Local Chicken Value Chain in Northern Uganda

*Akite, I.1, Kule, E.1Mugonola, B.1, Okot, M.W.2Kugonza, D.R.3& Aryemo, I.P.1

1Department of Agribusiness and Rural Development, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda             2Department of Animal Production and Range Management, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda3Department of Agricultural Production, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Corresponding author: akiteirine5@gmail.com

The study was carried out to explore gender participation in the local chicken value chain in Omoro and Oyam districts of Northern Uganda. Specifically, the study focused on characterizing local chicken value chain actors, ascertaining level and determinants of gender participation and the relationship between gender, access to, and control over income from local chickens.

A cross-sectional survey was carried out targeting 200 respondents and data were collected using structured questionnaires and interview guides. SPSS version 10 and Stata SE 13 (64 bit) software were used for data analysis. Simplified gross margin was used to determine the value-added at different segments of the value chain, descriptive statistics to characterize the actors and determine the level of gender participation, correlations to ascertain the relationship between access to and control over income from local chicken and logit regression model was used to identify the determinants of gender participation.

Results revealed that the majority of value chain actors were in the age bracket of (20–48) years with a greater majority being males. Processors (UGX 1,911,274) had the highest gross margin per year followed by traders (UGX 1,415,351) while farmers had the least. Men participated more in supply of inputs, house construction, marketing and barbequing of local chickens while women participated in production activities and stewing of local chickens (Pr = 0.00). Age, education level, marital status, income control, correlated significantly (Pr = 0.00) with gender participation in local chicken value chain. Men had more access to and control over income than women.

An engendered innovation platform could therefore be established to enable an intensive or extensive training and empowerment of actors especially women in the local chicken value chain.

Key words: Gender; participation; local chicken; value chain; gross margin; Uganda.

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ABSTRACT # 110

HEMORRAGIC STROKE  DEFINED BY FACTOR ANALYSIS WITH KEITH-WAGNER GRADES OF HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY  AT  TEACHING  HOSPITAL  OF  KINSHASA, DR CONGO

Acepted to be presented as a POSTER

Mvitu Muaka Moise1,5, Longo-Mbenza Benjamin2,5, Voumbo Matumona Yolande3, Monkondji Mobe Etienne3,4, Muaka Diela Marie-Josée4,5, Ndjali Dedel Christelle5, Mbungu Fuele Simon5

  1. Université de Kinshasa, Université Kasa-Vubu, Lomo Médical
  2. Université de Kinshasa, Walter Sisulu University, Lomo Médical
  3. Université Marien Ngouabi
  4. Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, Lomo Médical
  5. Unité de Biostatistique, Lomo Médical

Background : There is no valid published data about comorbidity of Stroke and hypertensive Retinopathy in Kinshasa, DR Congo (DRC).

Objective : This study aimed   to characterize hemorrhagic stroke (HS) through clustering age, hemodynamic, atherogenesis, and Keith-Wagner (KW) scores.

Methods : This consecutive series included 82 HS cases confirmed by CT Scan at TH between 2015 and 2016. Age, other markers of atherogenesis, arterial hypertension duration, and K-W Retinal scores 1-4, were considered using Factor Analysis for components.

Results : HS stroke was defined by total variance explained 67.6% with 4 components according to Eigen value and principal component analysis and Rotation Method varimax with Kaiser Normalization : Component 1 (creatinine, TG, Keith-Wagner Retinal scores, LDL-C, HDL-C, Heart rate, and Age); Component 2 (FPG, Arterial Hypertension duration, and Heart rate), Component 3 (pulse pressure, and Body Urea Nitrogen), and Component 4 (TC and age).

However, in considering atherogenicity index, Hemorragic stroke was defined by total variance explained 69.1% with 4 Components according to Eigen value and principal component analysis and Rotation Method Varimax with Kaiser Normalization : Component 1 (TC/HDL-C ratio, NonHDL, and LDL/HDL-C ratio); Component 2 (FPG, arterial hypertension duration, and Heart rate); Component 3 (Age, creatinine, and TG/HDL-C ratio), and Component 4 (PP, and Keith-Wagner Retinal scores).

Conclusion: Atherogenicity indexes were the best markers to characterize younger patients with lower Keith-Wagner scores (1-2) hemorrhagic stroke. Ophthalmologists must be integrated in the management of stroke and severe, uncontrolled or unknown arterial hypertension at TH.

Key-Words: Hemorragic Stroke, hypertensive Retinopathy, Keith-Wagner grades, atherogenicity indexes, Kinshasa, DR Congo.

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Abstract 111

AGEING FOR ISCHAEMIC STROKE  DEFINED BY FACTOR ANALYSIS WITH KEITH-WAGNER GRADES OF HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY  AT  TEACHING  HOSPITAL  OF  KINSHASA, DR CONGO

Acepted to be presented as a POSTER

Mvitu Muaka Moise1, Longo-Mbenza Benjamin2, Muaka Diela Marie-Josée3, Ndjali Dedel Christelle4, Mbungu Fuele Simon4

  1. Université de Kinshasa, Université Kasa-Vubu, Lomo Médical
  2. Université de Kinshasa, Walter Sisulu University, Lomo Médical
  3. Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, Lomo Médical
  4. Unité de Biostatistique, Lomo Médical

Background : There is no valid information on  comorbidity of Ischaemic Stroke (IS) and hypertensive Retinopathy (HR) in Kinshasa, DR Congo (DRC).

Objective : This study aimed   the characterize IS  stroke through clustering age, hemodynamic, atherogenesis, and KW scores.

Methods : This consecutive series considered 57 IS cases confirmed by CT Scan at TH between 2015 and 2016. Age, heart rate, creatinine, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), Body Urea Nitrogen (BUN), pulse pressure, biologic atherogenicity indexes, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, Triglycerides (TG), arterial hypertension duration, and K-W Retinal scores were considered using Factor Analysis for components.

Results : IS was characterized by total variance explained 60.5% with 4 Components according to Eigen value and principal component analysis and Rotation Method Varimax with Kaiser Normalization : Component 1 (BUN, TC, LDL-C, K-W scores, arterial hypertension duration, and TG); Component 2 (creatinine, HDL-C, and K-W retinal scores); Component 3 (Age); Component 4 (Heart rate and PP).

However, in considering atherogenicity index, IS  was defined by total variance explained 64.3% with 4 Components according to Eigen value and principal component analysis and Rotation Method Varimax  with Kaiser Normalization : Component 1 (TC/HDL-C, KW Retinal scores, NonHDL, TG/HDL-C ratio, and creatinine), Component 2 (LDL/HDL-C, Body Uea Nitrogen, and creatinine); Component 3 (Age), Component 4 (Heart rate and PP).

Conclusion : Atherogenicity indexes were the best markers to characterize   elderly patients with IS and severe KW scores 3-4 HR. Ophthalmologists must be integrated in the management  of stroke and severe, uncontrolled or unknown HR.

Key-Words : Ischaemic Stroke, hypertensive Retinopathy, K-W grades, atherogenicity indexes, Kinshasa, DR Congo.

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Abstract # 112

CLASSIFICATION OF STAGES OF SEVERITY OF HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY USING KEITH-WAGNER  AMONG PATIENTS WITH ACUTE STROKE AT TEACHING HOSPITAL OF KINSHASA

Acepted to be presented as a POSTER

Mvitu Muaka Moise1,5, Longo-Mbenza Benjamin2,5, Voumbo Matumona Yolande3, Monkondji Mobe Etienne3,4, Muaka Diela Marie-Josée4,5, Ndjali Dedel Christelle5, Mbungu Fuele Simon5

  1. Université de Kinshasa, Université Kasa-Vubu, Lomo Médical
  2. Université de Kinshasa, Walter Sisulu University, Lomo Médical
  3. Université Marien Ngouabi
  4. Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, Lomo Médical
  5. Unité de Biostatistique, Lomo Médical

Background : There are controversies in the literature and in Kinshasa practice about Keith-Wagner (KW) to characterize Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR).

Objective : To differentiate grades of HR according to Keith-Wagner.

Methods : 142 hypertensive patients were admitted for acute stroke to Department of Internal Medicine and examined for first funduscopy at the Division of Ophthalmology of Teaching Hospital (TH), Kinshasa. KW-HR was defined by 1-4 grades to be differentiated using univariate ANOVA and multivariate discriminant Analysis (DA). Siriraj score and Biomarkers of anthropometry, hemodynamics, lipids, lipoproteins, and atherognicity indexes were considered.

Results : In ANOVA, only age, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, Gluose, Body Urea Nitrogen (BUN), DBP, SBP, pulse pressure (PP), TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, arterial hypertension duration, Glascow score, Siriraj score, NonHDL, and all atherogenicity indexes (TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and LDL/HDL-C) varied significantly across HR grades. Thus, HR grade 1 was associated with highest values of age, Heart rate, Glucose, BUN, HDL-C, LDL-C, arterial hypertension duration, Glascow score, whereas HR grade 4 was associated with highest values of mean arterial pressure, DBP, SBP, PP, TG, Siriraj score, NonHDL, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C.

After adusting for confounding  variables using discriminant analysis, the majority of variables such as TG/HDL-C, LDL/HDL-C, creatinine, BUL, Heart rate, and NonHDL did differentiate significantly KW HR grade 4, KW grade 1 and agglutination of KW HR grade 2 and grade 3.

Conclusion: KW grades were limited to define mild, moderate, and severe HR in concomittent acute stroke and hypertension among these Central Africans.

Key-words : Keith-Wagner, hypertensive Retinopathy, stroke, Central Africans.

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Abstract # 113

CLASSIFICATION OF GLOMERULAR HYPERFILTRATION, NORMAL GLOMERULAR FILTRATION, KIDNEY DYSFUNCTION STAGES BY BODY COMPOSITION, SIRIRAJ SCORE, KEITH-WAGNER SCORE, HEMODYNAMICS, AND ATHEROGENICITY INDEXES

Acepted to be presented as a POSTER

(appreciation : descriptive research work)

Mvitu Muaka Moise1,5, Longo-Mbenza Benjamin2,5, Voumbo Matumona Yolande3, Monkondji Mobe Etienne3,4, Muaka Diela Marie-Josée4,5, Ndjali Dedel Christelle5, Mbungu Fuele Simon5

  1. Université de Kinshasa, Université Kasa-Vubu, Lomo Médical
  2. Université de Kinshasa, Walter Sisulu University, Lomo Médical
  3. Université Marien Ngouabi
  4. Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, Lomo Médical
  5. Unité de Biostatistique, Lomo Médical

Objective : To discriminate Kidney Dysfunction (KDF) forms in Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR).

Methods : 124 patients admitted within the Departments of Internal Medicine and Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital (TH) of Kinshasa, between 2015 and 2016. KDF was defined by creatinine clearance (Crcr) disorders : glomerular hyperfiltration (Crcr ≥ 125 mL/min; n=31), Normal filtration (Crcr = 90-124 mL/min; n= 30), CKD (Crcr = 60-89 mL/min; n= 32), CKD (Crcr = 30-59 mL/min; n= 30), and CKD (Crcr  < 30 mL/min; n= 28), using univariate ANOVA and multivariate DA.

Results : Age, heart rate, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG,  hypertension duration, Keith-Wagner (KW) grades, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and LDL/HDL-C ratios  varied significantly (p<0.05) across KDF forms : highest values of heart rate, HDL-C, and LDL-C related to glomerular hyperfiltration, and highest values of TG, KW grades, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C linked to CKD Crcr < 30mL/min.

After adjusting for confounders using DA, only TG/HDL-C (tolerance = 0.964; F to remove = 8.530 and Wilks’ Lambda = 0.637), LDL/HDL-C ratio (tolerance = 0.856; F to remove = 5.528 and Wilks’ Lambda = 0.594), and TC/HDL-C (tolerance = 0.846; F to remove = 5.018 and Wilks’ Lambda = 0.587) did discriminate KDF forms (Lambda = 0.515; p<0.0001; Eigen value = 0.002, cumulative variance = 100%; Canonical correlations = 0.042).

Conclusion : Ophthalmologists are not integrated in the management of hyperfiltration (Crcr ≥ 125 mL/min) and terminal KDF and markers of atherogenesis at mild and severe HR in Kinshasa, DRC.

Keywords : Glomerular hyperfiltration, chronic kidney diseases, severe hypertensive Retinopathy, Central Africans.

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Abstract # 114

CLASSIFICATION OF STAGES OF SEVERITY OF HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY USING WONG-MITTCHELL AMONG PATIENTS WITH ACUTE STROKE AT TEACHING HOSPITAL OF KINSHASA

Acepted to be presented as a POSTER

Mvitu Muaka Moise1,5, Longo-Mbenza Benjamin2,5, Voumbo Matumona Yolande3, Monkondji Mobe Etienne3,4, Muaka Diela Marie-Josée4,5, Ndjali Dedel Christelle5, Mbungu Fuele Simon5

  1. Université de Kinshasa, Université Kasa-Vubu, Lomo Médical
  2. Université de Kinshasa, Walter Sisulu University, Lomo Médical
  3. Université Marien Ngouabi
  4. Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, Lomo Médical
  5. Unité de Biostatistique, Lomo Médical

Background : The Kinshasa experience on retinal research reports that Keith-Wagner scores 1-4 hypertensive retinopathy (HR) is incompletely differentiated in terms of severity.

Objective : The objective of the study tested whether Wong and Mitchell (W-M) mild, moderate, and severe hypertensive retinopathy (HR) forms are completely classified among Central Africans with acute stroke according to atherosclerosis.

Methods : 124 patients with acute stroke and W-M HR mild, moderate, and severe to be classified using univariate ANOVA and multivariate discriminant Analysis (DA) by heart rate, creatinine, glucose, Body Urea Nitrogen (BUN), NonHDL, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and LDL/HDL-C ratios  were admitted at the Division of Ophthalmology, Kinshasa University clinics, DR Congo.

Results : Patients with hypertensive Retinopathy less aged = 55.8±11.6 years than normal retina aged = 62±13 years; P=0.015, sex ratio: 2 man : 1 woman. Mean values of all markers varied significantly across W-M HR forms in 124 patients. However, after adjusting for TC/HDL-C, using DA, the majority of markers such as TG/HDL-C, heart rate, BUN, Creatinine, LDL/HDL-C, NonHDL, and glucose significantly (Box’s M = 214.734; P<0.0001) differentiated mild, moderate, and severe W-M HR (Function 1 with Eigenvalue = 3.206, variance = 86.4%, and canonical correlation = 0.873; Wilks’Lambda = 0.158; P<0.0001  Function 2 with Eigenvalue = 0.503, variance = 13.6%, cumulative variance = 100%, Canonical correlation = 0.579; Wilks’Lambda = 0.665; P<0.0001).

Conclusion: Wong and Mitchell hypertensive retinopathy severity is well classified and a structural marker of atherosclerosis and KDF in Central Africans.

Key-words: Wong and Mitchell classification, hypertensive Retinopathy, stroke, Central Africans.

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Abstract # 115

Minimal invasive approach in management of  legs venous ulcer . Standpoint of vascular surgeon in 2017    

Dr Benjamin TATETE ( Hôpital de Nivelles, BELGIUM)

Email: tateteben@gmail.com

Venous legs ulcer represent a most common leg ulcer 80% It’s a medical problem in our low developed countries, by a difficulty to diagnose, its long  multidisciplinary and expensive management ,and discouragement. Generally It’s worst feeling in our habits, we thing  the necessity  of best diagnose, because venous leg ulcer  represent approximately 50% of incompetence saphenous veins bad treated.
We propose to privilege a new minimally invasive approach by endogenous treatment of incompetence saphenous veins with radiofrequency ablation procedure , involve a healing of venous leg ulcer during 4 or 6 weeks, this is a save methods, approved  by literature and we can realised  in subsaharan ´s  countries( except South Africa )with low cost. About how experiency during one year in Kinshasa.
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Abstract # 116 

Title: Effect of circulating antibody responses to known transmission blocking vaccine antigens on within-host gametocyte carriage

Estelle ESSANGUI1,2, Balotin FOGANG1,3, Christiane DONKEU1,3, Eric TCHOUPE1,3, Carol WOUADO1,4, Glwadys CHETEUG1,4, Sylvie KEMLEU1, Carole Else EBOUMBOU MOUKOKO1,5,  Lawrence AYONG1

1 Malaria Research Unit, Centre Pasteur Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon

2 Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Cameroon

3 Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde, Cameroon

  1.  Ecole Doctorale Régionale, Infectiologie Tropicale, Franceville, Gabon

5 Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, University of Douala, Cameroon

Background: In malaria, the immune responses against sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum is acquired naturally after exposure to gametocyte antigens (Ag). Acquisition of immunity to P. falciparum sexual stages is important for reducing human-mosquito transmission by preventing the fertilization and development of the parasite in the mosquito midgets. To assess the effect of anti-gametocyte antibody (Ab) responses on gametocyte carriage, we investigated the association between anti-gametocyte Ab prevalence and gametocyte positivity in a malaria endemic high transmission area in Cameroon.

Methods : Plasma samples from 199 endemic residents and 40 non endemic Europeans were analyzed by ELISA for antigametocyte Ab responses using 3 gametocytes recombinant proteins (rPfs25, rPfs28, rPfg27) and 3 Ag-specific peptides (Pfs25p, Pfs16p, Pfs48/45p). ELISA positivity was defined as an optical density greater than twice the mean values from European samples. Individuals were identified as malaria positive or as gametocyte carrier by using recently developed RT-LAMP methods.

Results: 70.8% (141/199) endemic residents had an active P. falciparum infection whereas 42.2% (84/199) were positive for gametocyte carriage. Among these, 98% (195/199) had positive IgG levels against a P. falciparum total antigen extract and the proportions of antigametocyte IgG Ab positivity were 64.1%, 47.2%, 55.9%, 19.5%, 16.4% and 21.5% for the rPfs25, rPfs28, rPfg27, Pfs16p, Pfs25p, Pfs48/45p, respectively. Parasite and gametocyte positivity was strongly associated (p=0.0087) with low overall IgG responses to the Ag extract. However, no association was observed between anti gametocyte Ab responses and gametocyte positivity or loads.

Conclusion: Together, our data suggest strong association between antiparasite Ab responses and P. falciparum gametocyte positivity but no effect of responses to known transmission blocking antigens on gametocyte carriage.

Keywords : Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, gametocyte surface Ag, immune responses, Cameroon.

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Abstract 117

Adherence to Ivermectin is more associated with perceptions of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin organization than with onchocerciasis beliefs

Fanny Nadia Dissak-Delon1,2,3*, Guy-Roger Kamga1,3,4, Perrine Claire Humblet2 , Annie Robert4  Jacob Souopgui2 , Joseph Kamgno5,6 , Marie José Essi6, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu3, Isabelle Godin2

 1 Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2 Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 3 University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; 4 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Research Division, Institut de recherche expérimentale et clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels’ campus, Belgium ; 5 Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 6 University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

* Corresponding author

E-mail: fannynadia@gmail.com

The fight against onchocerciasis in Africa has boomed thanks to the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) program. However, in Cameroon, after more than 15 years of mass treatment, onchocerciasis prevalence is still above the non-transmission threshold. This study aimed to explore a possible association between people’s beliefs/perceptions of onchocerciasis and of CDTI program, and their adherence to ivermectin in three regions of Cameroon.

A cross sectional survey was carried out in three health districts with persistent high onchocerciasis prevalence: Bafang, Bafia and Yabassi. Participants were randomly selected in 30 clusters per district. Data were collected through an administered questionnaire and analysed using Stata 13.

Adherence to ivermectin was comparable between Bafang and Bafia (55.0% and 48.8%, respectively, p>0.05) and lower in Yabassi (40.7%). Among all factors related to program perceptions and disease representations that were studied, perceptions of the program are the ones that were most determinant in adherence to ivermectin (AOR [95%IC] = 6.82 [3.29;14.16], p<0.001). People who had a “not positive” opinion of ivermectin distribution campaigns were less compliant than those who had a positive opinion about the campaigns (40% vs 55% in Bafang, and 48% vs 62% in Bafia, p<0.01), as well as those who had a negative appreciation of community drug distributors’ commitment (22% vs 53% in Bafang, 33% vs 59% in Bafia, 27% vs 47% in Yabassi; p<0.01). The most common misconception about onchocerciasis transmission was the lack of hygiene, especially in Bafia and Yabassi.

In conclusion, although there are still frequent misconceptions about onchocerciasis transmission in Cameroon, perceptions of ivermectin distribution campaigns are more strongly associated to adherence. In addition to education/sensitisation on onchocerciasis during the implementation of the CDTI program, local health authorities should strive to better involve communities and more encourage community distributors’ work.

Key words: onchocerciasis, ivermectin, adherence.

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Abstract # 118 

Transgenerational Epigenomics of Trauma and PTSD in Rwanda: new project

 Prof. Dr. Leon Mutesa, MD, PhD

Human Genetics

Center for Human Genetics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Rwanda

E-mail: lmutesa@gmail.com  

 The goal of the proposed work is to characterize the transgenerational genomic impact of genocide exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women survivors of the Rwandan genocide and their offspring.

PTSD is a common and debilitating mental disorder that has a profound public health impact. Between April and June 1994, almost one million people died in the Rwandan genocide against ethnic Tutsi. Twenty years later the long-term impact is illustrated by the prevalence of PTSD in Rwandan adults at 26.1 % and there is strong evidence pointing towards the transgenerational transmission of PTSD. PTSD has a known etiologic component: exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving life threat, which induces a biological cascade that includes epigenetic modification of loci whose activity contributes to psychopathological development. In addition, our study in Rwanda showed that transmission of PTSD to the offspring of genocide-exposed mothers was associated with transmission of biological alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and epigenetic modifications of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene, a key player in the glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network (GRRN).

Building upon these recent findings, the proposed work seeks to characterize the transgenerational epigenetic effects of PTSD and trauma exposure due to the Rwandan genocide. We will employ genome-scale technologies and focus initial analyses on regulation of GRRN and related HPA axis genes, which have been associated with PTSD in recent genome-wide work. Specifically, we will test 100 DNA samples from our existing biobank, previously established in support of our pilot study. We will extend the existing biobank by collecting new specimens from women who were pregnant during the Rwandan genocide and their resulting children, as well their younger siblings, and a demographically matched, non-genocide exposed control group.

Keywords: Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, Genocide, psychopathological Development, Transgenerational Epigenetic effects, Epigenetic modifications.

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Abstract # 119

INTRODUCING BIOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES AT UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA

Mediatrice Nyirinkindi*and Antoine Nsabimana

University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, P.O.Box 3900 Kigali, Rwanda

The University of Rwanda has a number of state-of the art laboratories located in Nyarugenge and Huye Campuses. These laboratories serve for academic research and provide students with the opportunity to get the desired practical training. The laboratory complex in Huye Campus is designed for postgraduate students and researchers while the one in Nyarugenge Campus was designed for undergraduate and  postgraduate students and researchers. Laboratory complex in Nyarugenge Campus has Biotechnology laboratories which are always shared within departments. Students and researchers are invited from different colleges; College of Medicine and Health Sciences (CMHS), College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), College of Education (CE), as well as other researchers from different government and private institutions within the country and abroad. This Complex has been built and equipped with the support of African Development Bank. Applied Biotechnology Complex in Huye is a complex composed of various research laboratories, among others molecular biology and cell biology units, which are ready for molecular biology research. Applied Biotechnology Complex has been built and supplied with new, cutting edge molecular biology equipments by ARES (Académie de Recherrche et d’ Enseignement Supérieur ) cooperation of the Belgian government. Through the partnership between University of Rwanda and ARES, there have been significant efforts to build capacity of laboratory technicians. This program targets short-term training (2-3 months) and it is tailored for specific needs of the laboratory (e.g. use of a particular machine).

Keywords – State of Art Laboratory, ARES, Undergraduates

* Corresponding author: Mediatrice Nyirinkindi: giramedi@gmail.com

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Abstract # 120

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF BREAST CANCER IN RWANDA

Authors: UMURUNGI Nicole;KALINIJABO Yves and CYUZUZO Aimee Pacifique

Institutions:Kigali City-Rwanda

UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA

COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

OPTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

E-mail:umunicole23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is a growing crisis in the developing world, with a majority of breast cancer deaths occuring in the low income countries  including Rwanda.  The lack of established diagnostics and treatments of breast cancer in developing complicates its management. Breast cancer is a disease caused by abnormal breast cells division leading to the malfunction of breast hormones thus causing breast cancer. The objective of this analytical study was to asses the epidemiology and clinical features of breast cancer in Rwanda through cases received from three referral hospitals: Kigali University Teaching Hospital (CHUK), Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) and Butare University Teaching Hospital (CHUB) among suspected breast cancer patients from all over the country.

Methods: Data were collected from August 2015 to January 2017 by considering information recorded from Out Patients Department (OPD), surgery and laboratory log books and from the archives of patients tested and diagnosed with breast cancer in that period. Microsoft Excel and Statisitical Packages for Social Sciences(SPSS 19.0 ) have been used for data entry and analysis. The total of 550 patients were collected and merely 278 breast cancer cases were used in the study since they provided more information and were histologically confirmed.

Results: Breast cancer incidence rate frequency from August 2015 to January 2016  was 27.70%, from February 2016 to July 2016 was 32.01% and from August 2016 to January 2017 was 40.29%  henceforth the average of incidence rate frequency is 33.33% per semester. Amid the diagnosed breast cancer in that period 97.04% of the cases arise in female whereas 2.87% arise in male. The most frequent breast cancer type was invasive ductal carcinoma with 80.43% and the least common were mucinous carcinoma and infiltrating medullary carcinoma with 1.08% for each. According to the age, people between 51 and 60 years old are more likely to be affected with a frequency of 31.73%.

Discussions and Conclusion: The breast cancer frequency observed in this study shows the healthy problem caused by this disease but still underestimation as most patients do not seek for its diagnosis. More deep study and research to increase the awareness and determine the causes of breast cancer in Rwanda is needed for its control. This will help in detecting, preventing, treating and monitoring breast cancer in Rwanda.

Key words: Breast cancer, epidemiology and clinical features, Rwanda

Author’s bio:

UMURUNGI Nicole a graduate student at the University of Rwanda, in Biotechnology with a grade of second upper class(75%). I am interested in medical biotechnology and fascinated about research as i have participated in one about HIV/AIDS patient with a resistance on ARVs and what actually causes that resistance at the National Reference Laboratory in Rwanda.

KALINIJABO Yves a graduate student at the University of Rwanda, in Biotechnology with a grade of second upper class(77%). I am interested in molecular biology as it helps studying living things deeply at their molecular level.

CYUZUZO Aimee Pacifique a graduate student at the University of Rwanda, in Biotechnology with a grade of second upper class(72%). I am interested in discoveries made in Biotechnology fields like personnalized drugs, vaccines and how it is changing the world.

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 Abstract # 121

Fecal contamination of water sources in and around volcanoes national park, Rwanda

NZIBAZA, V¹a; NYIRAMANA, A¹b; ECKARDT, W²

1 .University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, Biology Department, Huye, Rwanda

  1. Karisoke Research Center, Musanze, Rwanda

1a. e-mail: nzibazavenant@gmail.com, Phone number:+250﴿785646244

1b.e-mail: aisharash1@yahoo.fr, Phone number: +250﴿788492427

2.Email: winnie.eckardt@gmail.com, Phone number:+250﴿788350016

 Abstract

Background: Water borne diseases are a threat to wildlife and human population especially in Volcanoes National Park (VNP) which is home to critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringeiberingei). The aim of this study was to assess the risk of disease transmission in human, gorillas and livestock due to fecal contamination of water sources in and around the VNP.

Method: Water quality assessment was conducted using IDEXX Quanti-Tray/2000 collilert testing system to quantify both total coliform and E-coli in water samples taken at Kazi, Susa and Mudakama.

Results: The water is highly contaminated with fecal materials; 58.13 % of all samples are positive for E-coli, by which one of them have the maximum concentration (>24196MPN/100ml). All samples were also positive for total colifom bacteria; where 41.86% have maximum possible counts (>24196MPN/100ml). Kazi river is the most contaminated, followed by Susa and lastly Mudakama. Altitude, distance from the park borders and water flow influence water quality in the sampled sites.

Implications: The high concentration of indicator bacteria in VNP was observed because it was in the summer. Kazi water was the most contaminated probably because of high nutrients loads predicted by its darkness (50% of sample are highly dark, while the other 50% are moderately dark).

Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that diseases are able to be transmitted between human, wild animals and livestock because of livestock farming practices carried out near the park in addition to other activities that bring people in wildlife habitat such as water collection, tourism and research. Future studies should be conducted in both rainy and dry season in order to confirm seasonal changes of water contamination in the studied area.

 Key words: Total coliform, Escherichia coli,Colilert and Quanti-Tray/2000 Testing system

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Abstract # 122

Crucial role of laboratory animal models in R&D in Africa

Author: Prof. Jacob Souopgui

Laboratory of Embryology and Biotechnology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Medicine, BioPARK, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium – jsouopgu@ulb.ac.be

Abstract:

Gene expression regulation at the epigenetic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels play key roles in the total amount of proteins required for cellular activities during embryonic development and in tissue homeostasis of adult organisms. To understand how unregulated gene expression leads to diseases and genetic malformations in human it is absolutely necessary to focus on fundamental and translational research. Animal models are key biological tools used to illustrate and understand human pathologies in order to define appropriate measures and treatments. The African claw frog Xenopus is an excellent laboratory animal model that has been employed for many decades to study at the molecular and functional levels the different aspects and principles of vertebrate development.  A synopsis of our research work in this field will be presented in order to encourage and promote networking with scientists and particularly those based in African institutions and research centres.

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Abstract # 123

FOOD SECURITY ENHANCEMENT THROUGH IRRIGATION IN DROUGHT PRONE AREAS

  1. Nyunga1, D. Yezakuzwe1, D.U Mugabo1
  2. Munyaburanga2
  1. 1. Just Graduated Engineer (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering-P.O.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda, email: tinanyunga@gmail.com; yezadieu@gmail.com; dantemugabo@gmail.com 
  1. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. Email: vivientoo@gmail.com

Background: The droughts in Bugesera are mainly caused by intense deforestation and climate change and affect the livelihoods of people in this district who depend on agriculture; those frequent droughts are the main cause of crop failure, lands resilience weakness, deterioration in pasture and arable land (PADAB2007).

High population density and growth have led to deforestation, soil erosion and landscape and decreased agriculture productivity.At least 22% of the Rwandan households (2.2 million people) are food insecure and are highly vulnerable to food insecurity (WFP-RWANDA REPORT). Bugesera district counts between 15-28% of food unsecured households and Mayange district is the most affected part of the region (EDPRS II REPORT).

Objective: The main objective of this research is to design a small-scale irrigation scheme within Mukoma valley to enhancing food security.

Method: With CROPWAT8.0 software and climatic data from the meteorological station of Nyamata and Mayange, we have determined reference crop evapotranspiration, crop water requirement and water need during the whole year.

Results: The assessment of water variation has shown that the maximum water deficit will be in summer which is not our favorable growing season. The growing season will be from January to April and from September to December where the deficit will be compensated by a 500m3 reservoir.

Conclusion: The economic analysis has proved the project to be beneficial for the local population as well as the whole country to the extent that the implementation cost would be paid back within 5 years. Possible negative impacts have been identified and their mitigation measures have been recommended.

Keywords: Mayange sector, Mukoma valley, Irrigation scheme

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Abstract # 124

Performance evaluation of biogas system in kiramuruzi sector

M.Assouma1, U.Jerome1, N.Gilbert1

  1. Munyaburanga2
  2. 1. Just Graduated Engineer (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering-P.O.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda, email: mbabaziassouma@gmail.com, nshimiyg@gmail.com, jeromeuseg@gmail.com
  3. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. Email: vivientoo@gmail.com

ABSTRACT.

Introduction and Objectives: The proper implementation of biogas technology system requires the collection and analysis of parameters affecting biogas production and causes of biogas failure in the area time series. This study introduces the current performance of existing biogas system in Kiramuruzi sector. The main objective of this study is the performance evaluation of biogas system in Kiramuruzi sector with the following specific objectives: Assessment on the design and structural integrity of biogas system, Assessing the operation, maintenance practices and causes for biogas failure, and to determine the optimum biogas operating parameters such as temperature, pH, retention time and moisture content in the area.

Methods: To achieve the above objectives, the study sampled 35 households. Primary data were generated from field surveys using questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions.

Results: The results of the study indicated that among the household visited, 42.85% had non-operational biogas units. Looking at digester size, 20% of the plants visited were not yielding enough gas to meet the user’s energy needs. Due to parameters like temperature ranging from 22.5-30.1oc instead of being 30-40oC, moisture content on 5.47 to15% instead of 50%, and the retention time of various volumes of flexi and fixed dome digesters ranges from 77 to 100 instead of being (60-66) days. The poor performance of the systems are related to insufficient water and feed materials, low level of awareness on biogas system and the lack of locally trained technicians for maintenance.

Conclusion: The connection of   toilette to biogas system may help to raise the amount of feed material, harvesting rainwater to ease the mixing of feedstock.

Keywords: Biogas plant, harvesting rainwater and sustainable biogas technology

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Abstract # 125 

Spine Navigation based on 3-Dimensional Robotic Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Placement: a Prospective Study Involving 66 Consecutive Cases

Edward Fomekong, Salah Edine Safi, Christian Raftopoulos.

From the Department of Neurosurgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc Bruxelles,

Abstract

Background: Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) is associated with concealment of anatomical landmarks and increased radiation exposure, leading to increased pedicle screw mispositioning. To address these drawbacks, intraoperative 3-dimensional fluoroscopy (io3DF) and navigation are being increasingly used. The purposes of this study were to present our dedicated multifunctional hybrid operating room (HyOR) design and to evaluate the accuracy and safety of image-guided spinal navigation in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) placement.

Methods: The HyOR is designed with a fixed 3D multi-axis robotic fluoroscopy, which automatically moves to the preprogrammed position when needed. The intraoperative images are automatically transfered into the navigation system (Curve, BrainLab). From January 2014 to December 2016, 66 consecutive patients were treated for refractory lumbar degenerative pain. After a first io3DF and automatic registration, the PPS were calibrated and inserted under navigation. A second io3DF was done for verification.

Results: The mean patient age was 58.6 (standard deviation [SD]: 14.1) years. Seventy-three spinal levels were treated, and 276 screws were placed, with a mean of 4.2 screws per patient (SD: 0.76). There was no measurable radiation to the OR staff while the mean radiation dose per patient was 378.3 μGym2. The final PPS placement analysis showed an overall pedicle screw accuracy rate of 99.6%. There were no significant procedure-related complications.

Conclusions: Spine navigation based on io3DF images enabled us to suppress radiation to the OR team while delivering minimal radiation doses to our patients. This approach lead to obtain an accuracy rate of 99,6% PPS placed in a safe zone without significant complications.

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Abstract # 126 

Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy – the 5-year initial experience. Functional and oncological outcomes

Author:

Bertin Njinou Ngninkeu (1) (2)

  • Centre Medico-Chirurgical d’Urologie et de chirurgie mini-Invasive, Douala, Cameroun
  • Clinique des Ormeaux-Vauban, Le Havre, France

OBJECTIVES:

Radical prostatectomy (RP) remains a standard for localized prostate cancer treatment. The objective was to evaluate , in our personal experience, the oncological and functional outcomes in patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), 6 years after the first intervention in our clinic.

METHODS:

A first series of our single experience of 250 patients consecutively operated in our institution with this technique between july 2011 and january 2017 and with a 5-year follow-up evaluated in January 2017. The oncology monitoring is ensured with a PSA test every six months during the first three years and once a year the years after if the level remains undetectable.

RESULTS:

Patient stratification according to D’Amico risk categories was 16% low risk, 56.7% intermediate risk and 27.3% high risk. Median console time was 90 min (range 60-120). Median blood loss was 300 ml (range 50-1300), transfusion being required in 2.9% of the cases. Histopathological examinations showed pT3 in 40.8% of the cases, with a positive surgical margin rate of 21.1%, 13.6% for pT2, and 32.1% for pT3. Continence rate (0-1 daily safety pad) at 6, 12, 24 and 55 months was 88.3, 88.8, 90.1, and 93.7% respectively. Overall sexual function restoration rate at 6, 12, 24 and 55 months was 41.1, 44.4, 47.4 and 53%, respectively. Biochemical recurrence rate during follow-up was 6.9%.

CONCLUSIONS:

The technique RARP seems to be a reliable technique whose functional results studied from meta-analysis seem to be superior in terms of rapidity of recovery of the continence and erection in comparison with open surgical or laparoscopic approach.

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 Abstract # 127

DIGITALLY-ASSISTED LAPAROSCOPIC PROSTATIC ADENOMECTOMY:  SINGLE INITIAL  EXPERIENCE OF 200 CASES

Author:

BERTIN NJINOU NGNINKEU (1) (2)

  • Centre Medico-Chirurgical d’Urologie et de chirurgie mini-invasive (CMCU), Douala, Cameroun
  • Clinique des Ormeaux-Vauban, le Havre, France

OBJECTIVES:

We describe an initial and single experience report to assess the feasibility of laparoscopic prostatic adenomectomy digital assisted for adenoma enucleation and minimum operative hemorrhage

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

From November 2002 to April 2016: 200 patients

Symptomatic benign prostate hypertrophy: I-PSS>15

Mean prostate volume 106 gm (80-197) and adenoma 68 gm (50-107)

Mean preoperative Psa 7.2 (0.7-18.3)

Body Mass Index < 35

Evaluation at baseline and postoperatively: I-PSS, Qmax, Serum haemoglobin

Laparoscopic technique: Extra peritoneal approach

4 trocars used: 1 of 10mm for optical length and 3 of 5 mm

3 cm capsule incision at 1 cm of bladder neck

Skin incision of 2 cm at median port

Index digital finger used for adenoma enucleation

RESULTS:

Mean patients age: 68.6 years (50-87)

Mean follow-up 91 months (15-168)

No conversion to open surgery

No intraoperative complication

Mean intervention duration 92 minutes

4 post operative complications: capsular urine leakage

Mean pre and post op Qmax: 11.4 and 27.8

Average intraoperative blood loss: 150 cc

Mean adenoma resected tissue: 90 gm (40-140)

1 prostate carcinoma and 10 high grade PIN

Average pre and postoperative haemoglobin: 14.6 and 12.2 (normal: 14 to 18)

Postoperative I-PSS<5

Mean postoperative hospital stay: 4 days

CONCLUSIONS:

Laparoscopic prostatic adenomectomy is feasible, safe  and causes minimum operative haemorrhage. The long-term follow-up have to be evaluated

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Abstract # 128

LAPAROSCOPIC ARTIFICIAL URINARY SPHINCTER IN WOMEN FOR TYPE III INCONTINENCE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

 Author: Bertin Njinou Ngninkeu (1) (2)

  • Centre Médico-Chirurgical d’Urologie et de chirurgie mini-Invasive (CMCU), Douala, Cameroun
  • Clinique des Ormeaux-Vauban, France

 INTRODUCTION:

To evaluate the feasibility by laparoscopy of the AMS 800 artificial urinary sphincter in women

 METHODS:

Seven women with genuine stress incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency were operated by transperitoneal laparoscopy. Primary criterion was negative Marshall test. We performed laparoscopic promonto-fixation (LPF) in one patient in the same procedure. Five patients had previous TVT with complications regarding failure, perforation and erosion of bladder mucosa and urethra. Laparoscopic explantation of TVT was performed 3 months previously. In the last case, previous urethropexy and LPF in association with TVT were performed 10 and 1 year ago respectively. The cuff was placed around the bladder neck.

 RESULTS:

Mean age was 68.8(50-79) years. Mean closure pressure was 24.5(20-28) cm water. There was no erosion or extrusion. The only significant risk factor was previous surgery. The operative time was<3 hours. The hospital stay was 8 days. The mean follow-up was 6(3-13) months. Activation was done 6 to 8 weeks after implantation. Social incontinence (1 pad use with moderate leakage) and improvement of quality of life was reported in one patient. In this case the balloon was changed to obtain more pressure. Resolution of incontinence was achieved in 5 patients.

 CONCLUSIONS:

The AMS 800 can be successful implanted by laparoscopy to treat women type III incontinence. A long-term follow-up is warranted.

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Abstract # 129

LAPAROSCOPIC PROMONTO-FIXATION FOR GENITAL PROLAPSE: INITIAL EXPERIENCE OF 150 CASES

 Author: Njinou Ngninkeu (1)(2)

  • Centre Médico-Chirurgical d’Urologie et de chirurgie mini-Invasive (CMCU), Douala , Cameroun
  • Clinique des Ormeaux-Vauban, Le Havre, France

INTRODUCTION:

We describe the series of our initial 150 patients treated with laparoscopic promonto-fixation (LPF).

 METHODS:

150 patients were scheduled for LPF alone for genital prolapse or combined to TVT or TOT for urinary stress incontinence. Six had previous cure of prolapse, 30 hysterectomy and 21 vaginal vault prolapse. 15 had cystocele grade 4, 60 grade 3, 70 grade 2 and 5 grade 1. Five had rectocele grade 4, 30 grade 3, 95 grade 2 and 20 grade 1. Four presented uterine prolapse grade 4 and 6 grade 3. 120 were incontinent and 30 presented occult incontinence. No patient had overactive bladder. The procedure consists by correction of rectocele and cystocele by using 2 meshes, which are fixed, to the promontory. A TVT or TOT was placed if warranted.

 RESULTS:

Mean follow-up (FU) was 13 months. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at 6 and 12 months FU. LPF alone was performed to 15 patients and combined to 135 patients. Operating time<2 hours, blood loss<80 cc and mean hospital stay were 4 days. Ten patients presented recurrent cystocele grade 1 , 5 rectocele grade 2, 10 de novo urgency, and 4-urge incontinence. Five urinary retention requires TVT section. Complications consist to 1 ureteral and 2 anterovaginal wounds.

CONCLUSIONS:

LPF is performing the treatment of all aspects of the genital prolapse.

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Abstract # 130 

Cheap Ceiling materials from Waste paper recycling as a solution to deforestation and waste management 

  1. Aradukunda1, D. Yezakuzwe1
  2. Munyaburanga2
  1. 1. Just Graduated Engineers (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering-P.O.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda, email: aradukundap@gmail.com, yezadieu@gmail.com 
  1. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. Email: vivientoo@gmail.com 

 Background and Objectives: Despite advent in technological, paper is still used as a didactic material, in offices, packaging and card boarding.  Paper manufacturing remains a major cause of deforestation, which affects global warming, and climate change. As a response to minimize deforestation and dirtiness caused by scattered papers, this research aimed at recycling waste or used paper and make affordable roof and wall ceiling materials. The same way, it aimed at defining exact water-cement mixing ratios in order to reach the desired strength for ceiling materials. The research aimed at assessing the material strength against cracks and its water absorption.

Method: The compression of the ceiling boards was done using manual hydraulic press due to lack of modern equipment. Deinking was not found a necessity.

Results:  The resulted board produced with 100 % fiber from waste paper, is nearly the same as the commercial fiber ceiling board. From different ratios, the compressive strengths vary between 600-660 kpa. Water absorption test showed no impact of water upon the board unless is subjected to static water for 27 hours in cold places. These ceiling boards are not easily cracked upon fall or shakings.

Conclusion: Not only will this research contribute to the minimization of deforestation, but also medium income earners will afford the cost, thus getting rid of waste paper and preserve the environment. The other advantage of this paper recycling is that it can be recycled effectively up to five times, which is economically and environmentally significant. The recycling is not only focused on ceiling boards only, but also smart dustbins.

Keywords: Waste paper, recycling paper, ceiling material, water absorption, compressive strength.

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Abstract # 131

Wastewater reuse for irrigation and generation of energy: Case study of Musanze prison

P.M.Niyonkuru1, D.Umutangampundu1, A.G.Uwinema1

  1. V. Munyaburanga2

  1. Just Graduated Engineer(Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering-P.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda.Email: Paulmoise40@gmail.com, djalia012@gmail.com, anithagrace0@gmail.com

  1. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineerin Email: vivientoo@gmail.com

Introduction and Objectives: Musanze Prison is generating a huge amount of wastewater, which, if treated, can be reused for agricultural activities and generate energy from biogas. The wastewaters affect the road where it is discharged, bad odor to the neighboring community and to the environment in general and to inmates in particular. The objective of this project was to quantify, characterize and treat wastewater generated by Musanze central prison for irrigation and energy generation.

Method: The prison is located in Muhoza sector, Musanze District, in Northern Province.  Wastewater quantity was estimated as equal to 80% of total water consumption. Characterization was done based on checking the water parameters of importance for irrigation purpose where three samples of grey water were collected for analysis. They were analyzed for TSS, TDS, BOD and coliforms. For the treatment, the design of a decentralized wastewater treatment system (DEWATS) was suggested. DEWATS is a combination of 4 units which are: bio-digester, anaerobic baffled reactor, planted gravel filter and an aerobic polishing pond.

Results: After analysis, we found that the wastewater generated is 54.4m3/day. The TSS was found to be 520 mg/l and microorganism as Ecoli was found to be 80 CFU/100ml, green colonies 160 CFU/100 ml and proteus & salmonella 240 CFU/100ml. Based on the standards of water quality for irrigation purpose as per FAO, we found that the wastewater mainly the grey water from Musanze prison can be reused untreated and irrigate fodder crops or trees for ornamental purpose. However, DEWATS is suggested to treat the same combined with black water from the toilets to generate energy and reduce the amount of coliforms and suspended solids in order to meet the standards for irrigating vegetables likely to be eaten uncooked.

Recommendations: The collection and reuse of raw wastewater by using DEWATS provided in this work as a technology to generate biogas energy, reduce pathogens, other contaminants from the wastewater and later reuse it for irrigating edible crops like vegetables. So far, this project could be applied from small households to the higher institutions like hospitals, schools and prisons in order to improve sanitation, increase crop production and generate energy at the same time.

Keywords: Musanze Prison, wastewater, collection, crop production, treatment, reuse, irrigation, energy.

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Abstract # 132

Estimation of Water footprint of Coffee production in Rwanda

                                M.C.Nininahazwe1 B.A.Niyonshuti1 J.Umukunzi1

                                                             V.Munyaburanga2 

  1. Just Graduated Engineer (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering-P.O.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda, email: nininakournz95@gmail.com, niyobella@gmail.com 
  1. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. Email: vivientoo@gmail.com 

Introduction: Available data shows that Rwanda is water scarce. Its per capita fresh water availability is less than 1000m3, which is about a quarter of Africa’s average of 4000m3.  Rwanda being a developing country should set-up its investments taking into consideration its freshwater scarcity with a limited annual availability and a growing demand especially for commercial agriculture.

Purposes: This study seeks to estimate the water footprint of coffee production in Rwanda to ensure it is efficient, effective and sustainable and within the acceptable norm. The purpose of the study is to establish all stages undertaken to produce 1 ton of coffee and identify water consumption at each stage given Coffee’s hidden consumption of water.

Method: The WF is a multidimensional indicator, showing volumes but also making explicit the type of water use: evaporation of rainwater (green), surface water or groundwater (blue), or pollution of water (grey). To achieve the above purposes, the study sampled 20 people including Akagera Coffee farmers, processors and quality managers plus the CEO himself, where data were generated from interviews and questionnaires and also where our observation was of a great help to match the answers with the reality. The place was chosen given its great performance despite its newness in the market place because women and men work hardly together to level up their standards of living, also the CROPWAT model was used to determine crop water requirement for coffee production during one complete season.  These provided all information on all stages in coffee production that generate water consumption, the stages of focus included; production (farm level) and processing stage.

Results: The green + blue water footprint for plantains in Rwanda (crop consuming the largest green water e.g.: coffee, rice, wheat,…) is of 1663m3/ton of production while the green + blue water footprint of coffee production in ACP is 7381m3/ton, it is obvious that the water footprint of the coffee production in ACP is almost 5 times the normal footprint of plantains in Rwanda.

Conclusion: The Akagera Coffee Production has relatively high water consumption even without taking into consideration the grey water footprint, the indirect water used and consumed in the supply chain of the manufacturing of machines or tools used in the coffee production, water used and consumed by the farmers in ACP for drinking, hygiene or sanitation.

Key words: water footprint, water consumption, Akagera Coffee Project, coffee

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Abstract # 133

Difficulty in the diagnosis, mapping and monitoring of lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa, a big concern for the elimination of this Neglected Tropical Disease.

Author: Prof Joseph Kamgno.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I,

Director of the Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases

 Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease caused in Africa by Wuschereria bancrofti. 120 million peoples live in endemic areas. This disease is responsible for disabling lesions, elephantiasis and hydroceles. These last year’s LF mapping has been completed for many countries in Africa using the Binax Now® Filariasis Immunochromatographic Test (ICT). In Central Africa, where the prevalence appeared to be low, this mapping faced the cross reactivity of ICT test with high Loa micrifilarial load. It was observed in Central Africa, the cross reactivity of ICT test in subjects with high microfilarial load. In these patients, highly infected with loiasis, and positive for CT test, no Wushereria bancrofti infection was found with current diagnostic tools. On the other hand, it was shown that in Central Africa LF is focal, meaning there some LF foci in Central Africa. From recent observations, some high Loa mf load subject who were positive with ICT tests became negative the following year with the same amount or more microfilaria in the blood. Some communities where some subjects were positive with ICT, became negative. All these results render the interpretation of mapping, TAS and Pre-Transmission Assessment Survey (Pre-TAS), and Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) difficult in Loa endemic areas. Some researchers are supporting that there no LF in Central Africa. If this assertion is right, the countries will save drugs, distribution costs and time. However, if this is wrong, this represents a huge risk for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the general program. This big challenge demonstrates the need of good research in Africa for the development of diagnostic tools as well as therapeutic means for tropical diseases.

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Abstract # 134

Assessing cultural ecosystem services and human wellbeing in communities around Nyungwe national park, Rwanda.

A.Ndemezo1,, B. Kaplin2

  1. Just Graduated Botanist (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of sciences, Department of Biology, Botany and Conservation email:alexndemezo@gmail.com
  2. Lecturer and Director of Center of Excellency in Biodiversity and Natural Resources Management –University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, Biology. Email: bkaplin@antioch.edu 

Background: Cultural ecosystem services and their importance have been ignored and yet they are as important as any kind of ecosystem service. In developing countries conservation biologists have taken materialistic perspective and presented nature world as a source of materials to be managed sustainably, but people in these nations have their own cultural values and ethics which are related to aesthetic and spiritual attachments to nature, and this began to disappear in the face of absolutes of scientific and economic rationalism. The purpose of the study was to contribute to more effective conservation of biodiversity in protected areas in Rwanda through attention to cultural ecosystem services

Methods: We randomly selected 60 people from 60 families we reached them from their homes to identify cultural ecosystem services provided by Nyungwe National Park. We used questionnaires to interview people from Kitabi sector which is the immediate community around Nyungwe national park. The main themes of the questionnaire: what aspect of nature do people benefit from, how do these contribute to the wellbeing and to whose wellbeing?

Results: The study showed that no cultural activities going within the park. However, the park provided cultural resources that residents of Kitabi sector used in their villages. Twenty plants and eleven animals were mentioned to be culturally valued by the community. Sericostachys scandens ranked high (80%) as a culturally relevant because of its medicinal prospects of its leaves in preventing miscarriages in human and animals. Consequently, the myth that drives the values of Sericostachys scandens when it flowers also increases trespass into the Park and hinders its biodiversity.

Recommendations: The park management to choose a single day during flowering season of Sericostachys scandens and allow people who are interested to go pick the leaves under supervision of park management.

Key words: culture, ecosystem services, ecosystem, wellbeing.

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Abstract # 135

DESIGN OF AN EFFICIENT SOLAR POWERED WATER PUMPING SYSTEM FORRURAL AREAS: THE CASE STUDY OF AKARUGIRANKA VILLAGE (HUYE)”

  1. M. Elysee1, S. Gisele1, H. Emmanuel1
  2. Munyaburanga2
  1. 1. Just Graduated Engineer (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering-P.O.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda, email: elisemutangana@gmail.com; inhakiza2@gmail.com ; sabogsele@gmal.com. 
  1. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. Email: vivientoo@gmail.com

Introduction and Objectives: The EDPRS 2 which runs from 2012/13- 2017/18 has set very ambitious targets for the water supply and sanitation sector, aiming to achieve 100% coverage rate by 2017, in which it is targeting to reach 100% of rural population within 500m of an improved water source by 2017. This study main objective is to design an efficient water supply system which pumps spring water using solar energy for Akarugiranka village of Tumba sector, Huye district in the Southern Province with the following specific objectives:  quantifying access to improved water supply in Akarugiranka village, design an appropriate water supply system and conduct a cost benefit analysis of this system.

Methods: To achieve the above objectives, the study sampled 412 households. Primary data was collected through topographic survey, solar radiation data from FAO CLIMWAT 2. Software like Autocad and ArcGis was also use.

Results: The results of the study indicated that among the household visited, 301 people had no access to improved water supply with Total daily water demand of 9024L/day. A 3 days storage tank capacity of 27070.32 liters was designed. The spring yield was 35 l/min which required the storage reservoir at the intake of about 2242.613 liters. Submersible Solar Water Pump by Sun Pumps (SCS8-410-120 BL) powered by 5 Hyundai Solar Modules (Hyundai HiS-S350TI> 350 W mono solar panel) was chosen. Solar powered water supply system implementation cost was $14,040.3031 (11,513,048.54 Rwf) compared with $16,644.00318 (13,648,082.6 Rwf) for electrical water pumping system.

Conclusion: This system is feasible with 25 years as life span. It is of little cost compared to the other kind of pumping systems which exist in Rwanda, more especially electricity where the breakeven point of electrical pumping to solar pumping system is 3 years. After 3 years, i.e. within 22 years, electrical system will consume $ 38500 over solar system. If solar water pumping system is made available, drinking water crisis will be solved in this village and in rural areas in general.

Keywords: Akarugiranka, solar pumps, solar panel, water supply, rural areas, EDPRS.

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Abstract # 136 

Use of slow sand filtration system in the production of clean water for rural areas

Case study: Huye District

  1. MUVUNANGABO, F. GIRAGUSENGA, J. KABASINGA
  2. Munyaburanga 
  3. 1. Just Graduated Engineer (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering-P.O.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda, email: muvunachris@gmail.com, gsantofiacre@gmail.com
  4. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering. Email: vivientoo@gmail.com

Introduction and Objectives: The SSF Technology is a new idea and unique in Rwanda, apparently improved yet adopted from Western Europe where its implementation yielded fantastic results. This research project outlines the purification of water in Kadahokwa River using Slow Sand Filtration in Gishamvu Sector, Huye district in the Southern province of Rwanda. The overall objective of this research is to design a proper SSF to help the population living nearby KADAHOKWA River to access safe treated water for domestic use. The specific objectives are to determine the quality of Kadahokwa River, design of Slow Sand Filter and finally to propose a proper implementation.

Methods: To achieve the above objectives, primary data were generated from field surveys, the study also conducted some laboratory works for the determination of the level dirtiness and the concentration of some impurities existing in Kadahokwa River. Volumetric method is used to determine the flow rate of the River.

Results: The measured flow rate was found to be 200l/hr, according to WHO standards the person should consume the amount of water ranging between 20-30 liters per day. By multiplying with the number of population in the sampled area, the demand was calculated as follow: Quantity= 25l/c/d * 2840 persons= 71000 l/d. The area of the slow sand filter needed is 14.79m2.  The amount of microorganisms found using the Coliscan Easygel test, showed the presence of 1440 particles of E-coli, proteus and salmonera in one liter of the sample.

Conclusion: Slow sand filtration is a type of water purification system that is simple and effective that use local material and knowledge. It promotes sustainable participation of local population in the operation and maintenance of the infrastructures of the project.

Key words: Slow sand filtration, Kadahokwa River, volumetric method and Coliscan Easygel.

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Abstract # 137 

Construction materials from recycled plastics as a solution to solid waste management

M.Gitare1, R.S.Isabane1 ,T.Turatimana1

  1. Munyaburanga2
  1. 1. Just Graduated Engineer (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering-P.O.Box:3900 Kigali-Rwanda, email: remmybebes@gmail.com; gitmug5@gmail.com 
  1. Lecturer and Coordinator of Water & Environmental Engineer (WEE)-University of Rwanda, College of Sciences and Technology, School of Engineering; Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. Email: vivientoo@gmail.com

 Introduction and Objectives: Plastic wastes not only endanger marine life but also intoxicate human beings. Worse still, traditional roads have significantly shorter design life and so do other alternative road paving techniques such as reinforced slabs and concrete paving block (developing countries). Owing to these challenges, this research aimed to minimize the quantity of plastic wastes dumped in Kigali landfills by recycling it into construction materials while considering both economic and environmental benefits. Specific objectives included to maximize the use of post-consumer plastic waste and produce alternative eco-friendly building products.

Methods: we preferred to use the method of pyrolysis where it works in a closed system at a desired temperature until the plastics get melted. We designed a prototype that match with this method where our drum will be working in the closed system, to make sure that no gas will be vaporized in the atmosphere if there is any. In this research, we used high density polyethylene because of its excellent impact resistance, high tensile strength, low moisture absorption and chemical resistance properties.

In order to achieve the stated objectives, three samples per data point were prepared and quantity of sand content was varying by 1:3; 1:4; 1:5 respectively while keeping plastic content constant. The samples were placed in mould of dimension 100, 65 mm in diameter and height respectively where they cooled and set.

Results: Afterwards, the respective samples were tested for compressive strength and water absorption. Compressive strength test showed the values of 21.73 N/mm2, 26.15 N/mm2, 4.79 N/mm2 before heat exposure and 17.79 N/mm2, 22.37 N/mm2, 3.52 N/mm2 after exposure to 35 0C for 24 hours for the pavers in HDPE and sand mix ratio of 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 respectively. Water absorption test showed an average value of 0.052% which is lower compared to the cement concrete made pavers.

Conclusion: The research concluded that if made and put into use, these pavers will not only reduce construction costs especially those for repairs, but also assist in environmental conservation. Roads will be cheaply constructed, and with the increased durability, accessibility will be improved and economic growth bolstered.

Keywords: Plastics, high density polyethylene, pavers, water absorption, heat resistance, compressive strength. 

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Abstract # 138

Research-development partnerships for large-scale utilization of priority proven technologies of Millet and Sorghum in Mali

The objective of this work is to improve sorghum and pearl millet based production systems in Mopti and Sikasso regions of Mali through strengthened research-development partnerships for large scale utilization of priority proven technologies. The selected technologies also improve nutrition, benefit women and children and enhance the sustainability of smallholder agriculture.

At the farm level, the focus has been to improve production by increasing access to the identified new technologies and enhancing awareness and ‘know-how’ for use of existing technologies for enhancing sorghum and millet production.

In both regions Mopti and Sikasso, the major technologies targeted for dissemination has been related to millet and sorghum production as follows; a) the use of seed treatment such as Apron Star 42WS b) seed of improved varieties of pearl millet, sorghum (both hybrid and open pollinated varieties), groundnut and cowpea adapted to the sahelian environmental conditions; c) integrated Striga and soil-fertility management practices and d) biological control of the millet head-miner.

Among the fertilizer application rates proposed, the dose of 2g after first weding is the most preferred by farmers as it doesn’t require additional manpower for its application. On top of that, the yield has been increased at around 39% compared to the farmer’s practices.

 Seed treatment with Apron Star of millet seed significantly reduced the incidence and severity of diseases. Grain yield was 20% higher in the treated than the untreated ones.

Among the Millet varieties, Toroniou is the most appreciated by the producers because of its earliness, its high yielding and its large grains compared to G16 which is described by producers as late seeded variety.

In terms of the sorghum varieties, all producers from Koutiala appreciated Pablo and Fadda varieties for their high yielding, their tolerance to drought and they are easy to cook, in opposition to Sewa variety which is hard milling and less appreciated in the diet.

For Cowpea varieties, Korobalen variety is the most popular because of its high yield and adapted to the Mopti region compared to Wilibaly variety that producers found with low yield.

Collaborators  

AKF, AOPP, CMDT, CRS, EUCORD, IER, MALIMARK, MALIFOLCENTER, ORTM

NZUNGIZE John, Felix Badolo, Malick Niango Ba and Ramadjita Tabo.

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Abstract # 139 

“Assessment of risk factors affecting adherence to Tamoxifen among breast cancer patients at Butaro District Hospital.”

 Uwase M. Ange, Bpharm, RPh

Background: Survival of breast cancer patients has increased considerably with the effective use of adjuvant hormonal therapy such as Tamoxifen, but difficulties of adherence to the treatment limit its benefits. Adherence to Tamoxifen may be affected by many factors, among which are poor patient counseling and education, insufficient medication information, inability to cope with side effects arisen from Tamoxifen, socio-economic and socio-demographic characteristics of patients.

Objective: To determine risk factors affecting adherence to Tamoxifen among breast cancer patients.

Methodology: This was across-sectional, descriptive study. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data, Data was processed using SPSS version 16.0 and Microsoft Excel 2010.

Result: 63 breast cancer patients under Tamoxifen were interviewed and the majority was females (97%). The extent of adherence was found to be 51%. Many factors affecting the adherence to Tamoxifen were reported by patients among which mostly forgetfulness, hopelessness and financial burden; long-term treatment with Tamoxifen (30% of adherence for 3-4 years of treatment), side effects (73% reported depression and 52% stress), insufficient medication information (25% aware of name and use of Tamoxifen, 10% side effects and 6% diet), inadequate patient counseling and patient education (46% are worried about breast cancer).

Conclusion: The extent of adherence to Tamoxifen among breast cancer patients at Butaro District Hospital is 51%. This adherence is affected by forgetfulness, hopeless and financial burden of patients, poor communication between patients and healthcare providers, inability to cope with side effects of Tamoxifen, inadequate patient counseling and long-term treatment with Tamoxifen. This study recommends improving patient adherence to Tamoxifen through patient education about medication, patient counseling before any initiation of treatment and during the treatment with Tamoxifen.

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Abstract # 140

Catabolic profiles of cultivable microbialcommunities in forest soils of Western Algeriaalong a latitudinal gradient

1Borsali Amine Habib, 1Zouidi Mohamed, 1Hachem Kadda, 2Gros Raphael and 3Theoneste Hagenimana

Corresponding author:  rhizobiologie@yahoo.fr

Introduction: In Algeria, the soil degradation related to the biological properties in the surface layers is a major problem to the ecological balance and the development of forest massive. This phenomenon is the most important factor limiting the growth and productivity of forest plants in arid and semi-arid zones. Recurrent drought-type events are likely to have direct effect on soil microflora in its diversity and functionality. Research questions: How do these bioclimatic stages affect the distribution and abundance of microorganisms in forest soils and, what are their resistance and functional resilience capacities? Objective: To study the catabolic profiles of cultivable microbial communities of forest soils in western Algeria along a latitudinal gradient. Materials and methods: The research was carried out by sampling soils of surface horizons in five study plots of about 400 m2 each, selected in each study zone, making a total of fifteen plots in all three studied zones. Five samples of soil in each plot were randomly taken between 0-15 cm of depth and brought to the laboratory for analysis. Catabolic profiles were determined following the modified protocol of Garland and Mills (1991) with using of Biolog® Ecoplates method (BIOLOG Inc., Hayward, CA). Statistical analysis of data was done by using the Primer-e software version 6 (Primer-E Ltd, UK) for principal component analysis (PCA) and permutation multivariate variance analysis (PERMANOVA). Results: A greater diversity and catabolic wealth were found in the Tlemcen zone, considered as sub-humid. There was a significant effect of the bioclimatic stage on the soil biological wealth and diversity while the gradient of aridity was the contributing factor to discriminate different study areas. Conclusion: There is a need to protect these soils to avoid a definitive risk of desertification in all these zones.

Keywords: Catabolic profiles, Arid and semi arid zones, Surface status, Soils, Forest

Submitted under:

THEME: TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY ADVANCES IN AFRICA

Sub-theme: Biogeochemistry and Soil Biochemistry

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Abstract 141

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RWASAVE AQUACULTURE STATION TO THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES OF NGOMA AND SAVE SECTORS

C.Ujeneza1,  A.Funmilola1

1.Just Graduated Conservationist (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal science and Veterinary Medicine(CAVM), School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (SASVM), Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources Management. Email: nezacedric69@gmail.com 

2. Lecturer in University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal science and Veterinary Medicine(CAVM),School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (SASVM), Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources Management. Email: funmiaquaconsult@gmail.com

The benefits of aquaculture in rural development relate to health and nutrition, employment, income, reduction of vulnerability and farm sustainability. Considered as a profitable station, Rwasave aquaculture station has developed quickly in recent years; aquaculture has created several jobs, income, and development in culture techniques for local residents as well as contributed significantly on economic development of sectors it belonged in

This study was conducted to evaluate the socio-economic analysis of Rwasave aquaculture station to the local communities of NGOMA and SAVE sectors. To generate information essential for knowing the socio-economic analysis of Rwasave aquaculture station to rural communities, a data collection survey was carried out. The primary data were obtained  from  50  respondents  with  structured  interview  guides,  which  were  selected  using Purposive sampling technique.

 The results reveals that the majority (64.0%) of the people were male while (36.0%) were in the active age distribution of 21-30 years, (26.0%)  of  the  respondents  were agriculturists and students as primary occupation while only(12.0%)  were fisherman as primary occupation. Results of the study showed that there was a significant gap in the collaboration between Rwasave aquaculture station and the local communities of NGOMA and SAVE sectors where 100.0% of all respondents said that there are no extension services that are offered by the station and results from the respondents showed that people are more in need of those extension services where trainings and Farm visit came with percentage of 70.0% and 64.0% respectively. Implications of these findings were critically examined, and pertinent recommendations were proffered based on the salient findings in the study.

Key words:Rwasave, Aquaculture, Extension services, Local communities

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Abstract # 142 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RWASAVE AQUACULTURE STATION TO THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES OF NGOMA AND SAVE SECTORS

C.Ujeneza1,  A.Funmilola1

1.Just Graduated Conservationist (Aug.2017), University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal science and Veterinary Medicine(CAVM), School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (SASVM), Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources Management. Email: nezacedric69@gmail.com 

2. Lecturer in University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal science and Veterinary Medicine(CAVM), School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (SASVM), Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources Management. Email: funmiaquaconsult@gmail.com

The benefits of aquaculture in rural development relate to health and nutrition, employment, income, reduction of vulnerability and farm sustainability. Considered as a profitable station, Rwasave aquaculture station has developed quickly in recent years; aquaculture has created several jobs, income, and development in culture techniques for local residents as well as contributed significantly on economic development of sectors it belonged in.

This study was conducted to evaluate the socio-economic analysis of Rwasave aquaculture station to the local communities of NGOMA and SAVE sectors. To generate information essential for knowing the socio-economic analysis of Rwasave aquaculture station to rural communities, a data collection survey was carried out. The primary data were obtained  from  50  respondents  with  structured  interview  guides,  which  were  selected  using Purposive sampling technique.

 The results reveals that the majority (64.0%) of the people were male while (36.0%) were in the active age distribution of 21-30 years, (26.0%)  of  the  respondents  were agriculturists and students as primary occupation while only(12.0%)  were fisherman as primary occupation. Results of the study showed that there was a significant gap in the collaboration between Rwasave aquaculture station and the local communities of NGOMA and SAVE sectors where 100.0% of all respondents said that there are no extension services that are offered by the station and results from the respondents showed that people are more in need of those extension services where trainings and Farm visit came with percentage of 70.0% and 64.0% respectively. Implications of these findings were critically examined, and pertinent recommendations were proffered based on the salient findings in the study.

Key words:Rwasave, Aquaculture, Extension services, Local communities

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Abstract # 143

Sudden cardiac arrest: a threat for african country health system

Dr. Carnot TANIE – CHIREC Group Brussels – BELGIUM

Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) (or sudden death), is defined as a sudden and unforeseen arrest of any cardiac and respiratory activity without any obvious external cause such as trauma or poisoning, and occuring in a patient without any previous morbidity.

It is an important public health problem throughout the world. In european countries and the US, due to the availability of data through national registeries of cardiac arrest, it is estimated to represent between 55-110 / 100,000 inhabitants/year.

The lack of such databases in african countries (especially sub-saharan) renders such epidemiological studies difficult in this region, and thereafter the estimation of its impact on society in terms of public health.

Otherwise, SCA of traumatic origin (road accidents, natural disasters and others) represents a significant part of death in this region, and its treatment is still a major health challenge.

The mortality after SCA remains very high, about 90%, even in more developed countries. There are however a package of measures which, all implemented together, improves survival of patients in general. So, optimal medical treatment with well conducted resuscitation allows the doubling or tripling of chances of survival after the occurence of a SCA.

Strategies for resuscitation do exist and have been well defined. They differ in terms of the origin of the cardiac arrest, with a particular emphasis placed on conditions surrounding its occurence: sudden, traumatic, in- or extra-hospital.

ILCOR (international committee for the coordination of techniques and protocols of resuscitation) has published updated guidelines for the medical management of patients with SCA. They are what we call «the survival chain» within which each link has a special significance. This ranges from early recognition of SCA, alerting for emergency and first aid, to the specialized medical treatment. Their implementation in Africa should be a priority, even more if we consider the low level of literacy in the population, especially in rural areas, the poor quality of infrastructure (such as roads, as well as technical aspects related to medical care) and their importance in the proper functioning of this chain of survival.

It’s all about a multidisciplinary intervention which should, at the end, lead to the improvement of survival, wellness and  life expectancy of local population.

The goal of the proposed lecture is to take notice of all the measures and provisions, to educate local populations and authorities, and to help in training for the optimal management of patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrest.

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Abstract # 144

Fabrication Lab in a Kit (FLiK): DIY Assistive Technology for Children with Disabilities in Kenya 

Authors:

  1. Melanie Baljko is an Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, York University, with an extensive history of using collaborative and participatory design to the area of assistive computer technology.
  1. Michaela Hynie is an Associate Professor in Psychology, York University. Her research focuses on community development, international partnership, community-based research and program evaluation.
  1. Susan McGrath is a Professor of Social Work at York University. She has led several large international research projects in the focus areas of international collaboration, social work, community based research and community development.
  1. Foad Hamidi is a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the University of Maryland who specializes in Human-Computer Interaction and investigating the technological tools for supporting inclusion and empowerment, particularly for people with disabilities.
  1. Peter Oracha Adoyo is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Special Needs and Rehabilitation, Maseno University, Kenya. He is an expert in Special Needs Education, particularly in the area of communication.
  1. Patrick Mbullo is a PhD Student at Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology. He is well versed with expertise in qualitative methods, especially ethnographic techniques in multidisciplinary studies.
  1. Deurence Onyango is a Statistician and Project Management Specialist with passion in working with children, youth and women on socio-economic interventions for sustainable development. Currently, a Research Coordinator at Pamoja CBO in Kenya.

Email of corresponding author: deurence.adhiambo@gmail.com

Background: Digital technology specifically designed for people with disabilities is important in lowering boundaries to education, employment and basic life needs. Leveraging local community resources to support people with disabilities also reduces barriers, and is particularly important in contexts where access to technology is limited. In this project, FLiK (Fabrication-Lab-in-a-Kit), we are investigating the use of the participatory design of digital assistive technologies to improve the well-being of children with disabilities in Kenya through cross-sectorial academic/community collaborations. Kenya has gained worldwide recognition as a leader in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in East Africa (Smith, 2012).

Methodology: We work with two primary schools in Kisumu, Kenya. We have adopted a participatory design approach (Greenbaum and Kyang, 1991; Schuler and Namioka, 1993) in which we include users and other community stakeholders in the design, evaluation and deployment of low-cost Do-It-Yourself technology from the outset. Participatory Design originates research in a community’s needs and interests to bring about social change as part of the research process (Horowitz et al., 2009). Data collection includes focus groups with stakeholders and parents, interviews with teachers and surveys with parents, teachers, and other stakeholders. Children answer simple questions about enjoyment.

Objectives: With FLiK we aim to (1) understand the socio-economic, cultural and technological dynamics relevant to the design, development and deployment of Do-It-Yourself (DIY) digital assistive technology (DAT) for children; (2) study how the stakeholders’ personal and cultural attitudes and norms concerning the nature of disability affect the process of development and use of AT for this population; and (3) evaluate how collaborative Participatory Design (PD) processes shift the understanding of technology in addressing quality of life in participants.

Results: We report on the outcomes of the initial phase of the project in which we engaged multiple groups of participants: Four students at Maseno University in critical studies and computer science; 24 pupils with disabilities; 24 parents of children with disabilities; four teachers at our two partner schools; and 30 community stakeholders including advocates, community organizers, NGOs and government representatives. Interviews and focus groups suggest that the development of assistive technology can be an effective tool to facilitate dialogue among the various stakeholders and be a tool to challenge and question stereotypes and stigma around disabilities. Additionally, special education teachers and university students collaborated and took an active role in introducing DIY assistive technologies to their communities, increasing the potential for social impact. The results of this research are expected to be relevant not only for Kenya but for most of East Africa and potentially other countries. 

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Participatory Design, ICT4D, East Africa, Community-Based Research, Digital Assistive Technology, open-source, children with disabilities, models of disability.

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Abstract # 145 

Shared Behavioral Endophenotype in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Joachim Kapalanga1,2,3 , B. Laufer1,  A. Chokroborty-Hoque1,  D. Wong3.  1. Western University

  1. Grey Bruce Health Services, 3. Summerside Medical Centre.

A certain behavioral endophenotype (BEP) characterized by impaired executive function, emotional regulation, cognition, learning and social adaptation is shared by four neurodevelopmental  disorders (NDD): fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),  fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The genetic defect is known in FXS but specific genetic defects or single genes have not yet been conclusively identified in FASD, ADHD, and ASD.  Even with the putative mutation not all carrying it are affected. While the genetic factors involved in these NDD are disparate, the shared BEP is identifiable clinically. Further, pathogenic alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation are critical in the etiopathogenesis of all four NDD.  The logical question to ask is whether or not there is a shared ‘final pathway’, which represents a profile of epigenetic modifications and gene expression that is an explanation for the shared BEP.  The objectives of this study are to: 1) demonstrate BEP component distribution patterns and frequency in FASD, ADHD, FXS and ASD, and 2) determine whether or not the patterns and frequencies are significantly different or similar. We hypothesize that the distribution and frequency of the components of the BEP are similar and not significantly different among the four NDD. We further hypothesize that a shared ‘final pathway’ representing a profile of epigenetic modifications and related differential gene expression is the explanation for the shared BEP. From a multicenter and multiclinic patient sample, clinical records of  89 FASD, 98  ADHD,79 FXS and 82 ASD patients aged 6 to 18 and 100 controls were examined. The occurrence of the BEP components in each subject were recorded. the distribution of BEP components was analyzed across the 4 NDDs. We demonstrated that there were no significant differences in frequency distribution of the BEP components among the four NDD. There were no significant differences in frequencies of deficits in social adaptation, cognition, learning, and emotional regulation among the four NDD (p > 0.05). There was weak significant (p<0.05) difference in the frequency of occurrence of executive function between ADHD and FXS patients. There were significant differences between the control group and each NDD (p<0.01). These results demonstrate that the specified BEP is shared by the four NDD. The tendency for these disorders to cluster endophenotypically suggest a shared underlying etiopathogenic pathway. As the underlying etiologic genetic factors or genes are disparate for each NDD, a shared ‘final pathway’ representing a profile of epigenetic modifications and differential gene expression is not inconceivable.  In the classical paradigm for elucidating the etiopathogenic molecular basis of a genetic disorder, a broad diagnostic category is used as the basis for identifying a causative gene or genes. However, the endophenotypic heterogeneity of NDDs confounds the classical  approach and produces disappointing results. The results in this study point to another strategy to overcoming clinical complexity. This novel strategy identifies shared molecular mechanisms in NDD patients with a shared endophenotype rather than in NDD patients with the same diagnosis but little central phenotypic kurtosis.  The NDD patients with a shared BEP will be used in a subsequent study to elucidate profiles of epigenetic modification and differential gene expression in an attempt to identify a shared ‘final molecular pathway’.

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Abstract # 146 

Epigenetic Mark Erasing In Childhood Chronic Disorders

Kapalanga J1,2, Chokroborty-Hoque A1, Laufer B1.

1 Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, 2 Grey Bruce Health Services, Owen Sound, Canada

Certain early childhood onset chronic disorders become less severe and less frequent or are “outgrown”  with advancing age even in individuals of the same genetic makeup living in dissimilar environments or individuals with dissimilar genetic makeup but live in the same environment. It is an established clinical knowledge that certain chronic early childhood disorders including allergic, immunologic, infectious, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurodevelopmental and rheumatological disorders are “outgrown” or become milder by late childhood or early adult life (Table 1).  These disorders are also known to have significant genetic predisposition, exacerbating environmental factors and epigenetic modulation. Outgrowing of disease symptoms has been observed in all ethnic/racial groups, in both sexes, in disparate geographic regions and in dissimilar environmental settings. Therefore, it is not inconceivable that epigenetic modulation of gene-environment interactions in disease etiopathogenesis, is involved in “outgrowing” a specific child hood disorder. This meta-analysis aims at analyzing and characterizing the temporal impact on disease phenotype, of epigenetic modulated gene-environment interaction in chronic childhood disorders. We hypothesize that deleterious epigenetic modulation of disease associated gene-environment interactions becomes less deleterious throughout childhood and that the epigenetic marks are erased over time. In this analysis we examined original research and review articles that addressed epigenetic mechanisms that modulate gene-disease interactions using a selected group of disorders that are prototypic of disorders that are “outgrown”  with advancing age. We identified articles that addressed the genetics, epigenetics, epidemiologic, etiologic and environmental factors  involved in pediatric asthma, pediatric atopic dermatitis, oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, childhood absence seizures, pediatric ADHD and childhood bacterial disease.  We used multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) to test the hypotheses. We report that across all ethnic/racial groups and environmentally dissimilar areas, the selected disorders become symptomatically less severe throughout childhood.  We report that for each disorder examined the differences in mean age of onset and mean age of remission between populations living in climactically dissimilar environments, between different racial or ethnic groups and between sexes was not statistically significant (p<0.05). For each of the disorder examined, there was no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in “outgrowing” disease with advancing age even in individuals of the same genetic makeup living in dissimilar environments or individuals with dissimilar genetic makeup but live in the same environment. The finding that across all ethnic/racial groups, in different geographic areas, and environmentally dissimilar areas, the selected disorders becomes symptomatically less severe throughout childhood suggests that epigenetic modulated gene-environment interactions critical in disease etiopathogenesis become less critical with advancing age.  The environment and an individual’s genotype and hence (epigenetic modulated) gene-environment interactions, which during early childhood are potent disease symptom exacerbating factors, seem to loose potency during later childhood and adult life. This further suggests that disease associated epigenetic marks in certain chronic childhood disorders are, and could be, temporally erased or reversed throughout childhood.

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Abstract # 147

A psychological look at sickle-cell anemia in the Great Lakes region: Case of Lubumbashi

By Kasongo Maloba Tshikala Philippe, PhD – University of Lubumbashi – DR Congo

Clinical Psychologist & Associate Professor in the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences. His interest is in the qualitative approach, in helping relationships, in active and sympathetic listening for those who are suffering.

Mode of presentation: Platform

Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic disorder which rages the world and especially in Africa. In the DR Congo, it affects more than 20 million people (Le Potentiel, 2012). Studies realized in Lubumbashi (Ya Pongombo Shongo & al., 2013, Luboya & al., 2014) show that, in the absence of routine neonatal screening, diagnosis is often made with a call sign, and sickle cell sufferers are stigmatized, and they have difficulties in social and educational integration. In the framework of the development research project on the management of sickle-cell anemia in Kisangani (Marini & Batina, 2017), the objective of this study is to verify the existence of a community of culture between therapists and patients (Delay & Pichot, 1967), or with their families, ie whether the different actors have the same conceptions of sickle cell disease, its causes and its treatment. The lack of knowledge about the disease and the lack of screening lead some patients to die before five years old. As this descriptive study, the interviews with some families from april to july 2017, followed by the thematic analysis, revealed a lack of knowledge of the disease, its causes and its detection by most families, demonological causation is favored. It was found that most do not even know their blood groups until the day of their marriage. The lack of adjustment between therapists and patients is a major difficulty in the supporting. The patient’s experience is tinged with stigmatization, it generates the physical as well as the psychological exhaustion of the patient’s family. Preventive measures, in some cases, refer to prenuptial consultation to control the risk of the disease on the offspring. In the end, interest should be directed not to the disease but to the patient. It is then necessary to privilege the bio-psycho-social model which integrates the biological, psychological and social dimensions of the disease, one to the other.

Keywords: Sickle cell anemia, community of culture & adjustment.

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Abstract # 148

Abstract # 1(a)30 -A-   ORIGINAL FRENCH VERSION

La Détection Précoce de la Maladie Coronarienne chez les Diabétiques Asymptomatiques par la Scintigraphie Myocardique au Tc-99m MIBI à l’Institut des Radioisotopes de Niamey, UAM

  1. Moussa, A. Ada, I. Soli, M. Abari, M.Arzika et A. Issa Ado

Auteur pour correspondance: djibrillou@yahoo.com

Dans les pays développés, la mortalité par maladie coronarienne a diminué au cours des dernières années. Cependant, en Afrique subsaharienne, l’incidence de la maladie coronaire est en nette progression. La scintigraphie myocardique occupe une place de choix dans la détection de la maladie coronaire en raison de sa sensibilité, spécificité et caractère non invasif. La maladie coronarienne bien prouvée fréquente chez les diabétiques asymptomatiques dans la littérature, n’a jamais fait l’objet d’étude chez les noirs africains. L’objectif général de cette étude est de dépister l’ischémie myocardique silencieuse chez les patients diabétiques asymptomatiques par la scintigraphie myocardique.

Il s’agit d’une étude prospective descriptive, transversale allant du 11 novembre 2014 au 12 mars 2016, qui portait sur 138 patients diabétiques asymptomatiques noirs. Tous ont bénéficié d’une première acquisition d’image 40 minutes après injection de 10 mCi de Tc-MIBI sur une gamma caméra de type Mediso double tête munie d’un collimateur de basse énergie et de haute résolution (LEHR). La matrice d’acquisition était de 128×128 associée à un zoom de 1,2. Une deuxième acquisition, au repos était faite 3 heures de temps après la première après injection de 30 mCi de Tc –MIBI. La synchronisation à l’ECG a été faite à l’effort. La reconstruction des images a été faite grâce au logiciel Emory. Le consentement éclairé de chaque patient était obtenu. L’étude a reçu l’autorisation du comité national d’éthique.

L’âge moyen des patients était de 51,89 ± 9,18 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 29 à 73 ans, le sexe ratio de 0.60, et la durée moyenne de l’évolution du diabète était de 7±4ans. Les facteurs de risque les plus retrouvés chez nos patients étaient l’HTA  qui constituait le principal facteur de risque (45,45%), suivie de l’obésité dans 31,06%, la dyslipidémie dans 13,64%, la sédentarité et le tabagisme dans respectivement 6,06% et  3,79% des cas.

L’épreuve d’effort était positive chez seulement 14 patients (10,15%) et négative chez 124 patients (89,85%), La fréquence de l’ischémie myocardique silencieuse était de 60%. Les anomalies de la perfusion étaient de type ischémie chez 57 patients (69%), de type nécrose chez 17 patients (20%) et de type mixte chez 9 patients (11%).

En conclusion, La maladie coronarienne est très fréquente chez les diabétiques  asymptomatiques de race noire. Elle doit être détectée tôt afin de prévenir les complications. Il est nécessaire à travers une étude multicentrique d’adopter une stratégie de gestion plus efficace.

Mots-Clés: Diabète de type 2; ischémie myocardique silencieuse; scintigraphie myocardique; Niger.

Les auteurs déclarent qu’ils n’ont aucun conflit d’intérêt.

          ENGLISH  VERSION

Early Detection of Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients Undergoing SPECT Myocardial Perfusion imaging with Tc-99m Sestamibi (Tetrafluoroborate).

  1. Moussa, I. A.Soli, H. Sadou Maiga, A. Ada, M.Arzika, M. Abari and A. Issa Ado

Corresponding Author email: djibrillou@yahoo.com

In developed countries, mortality from coronary disease has been falling in recent years. Myocardial perfusion imaging (scintigraphy) occupies a special place because of its sensitivity, specificity and noninvasive. Coronary disease although proven common in asymptomatic diabetic in literature, never the object of study in African black people. The general objective of this study is to detect silent myocardial ischemia into asymptomatic diabetic patients.

This is a prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study ranging from 11 November 2014 to 12 March 2016, which concerned 138 Black asymptomatic diabetic patients. All the patients received an initial image acquisition 40 minutes after 10mCi injection of 99mTc-Sestamibi at the maximum of the stress. The acquisition was performed using a Mediso dual-head gamma camera equipped with a low-energy, high-resolution collimator (LEHR). The acquisition matrix was 128 × 128 with a zoom of 1.2.  Three hours later after the stress, a second acquisition was performed 40 minutes after injection of 30mCi of Tc-Sestamibi.   Synchronization to the ECG was done both in the effort and rest. The images were reconstructed using the Emory software.

The informed consent of each patient was obtained and the study was approved by the National Ethics Committee.

The mean age of the patients was 51.89 ± 9.18 years with extremes ranging from 29 to 73 years, sex ratio 0.60, and mean duration of diabetes progression was 7 ± 4 years.

The most common risk factors in our patients were hypertension, which was the main risk factor (45.45%), followed by obesity in 31.06%, dyslipidemia in 13.64%, physical inactivity and smoking in 6.06% and 3.79% respectively.

The exercise stress test was positive in only 14 patients (10.15%) and negative in 124 patients (89.85%). The frequency of silent myocardial ischemia was 60%. Perfusion abnormalities were ischemia in 57 patients (69%), necrosis in 17 (20%) and mixed (9%) patients (11%).

We conclude that coronary artery disease is very common in black asymptomatic diabetics. It should be detected early to prevent complications. It is necessary through a multicentric study to adopt a more effective management strategy.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, silent myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, Niger

Conflict of interest:  None declared

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Abstract # 149

Drepakis: Contribution to the management of Sickle cell disease in the city of Kisangani (D.R. Congo).

MARINI R.D.1, BATINA A.S.2, GULBIS B.3, HUBERT Ph.4, BOURS V.5, RAZY E.6, FREDERICH M.7, GUILLAUME M.8, ETIENNE A.-M.9, MBINZE J.K.10, KIMONI KICHA11, ALWORONG’A OPARA  ATIM-NEDI J.-P.12, BORIVE AMANI M.13, KASONGO MALOBA Ph.14, OPESA LOHATA A.15,BANSANDJA LONGEMBE E.16,MAVINGA TANA A.17

1 Université de Liège, Faculté de Médecine, Département de Pharmacie, Département des Sciences Biomédicales, Liège, Belgique

Université de Kisangani, Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie, Département de Médecine – Département de Pharmacie, Kisangani, R.D. Congo

3  Université Libre de Bruxelles, Hôpital Erasme – LHUB – ULB, Laboratoire Hospitalier Universitaire de Bruxelles – Site Anderlecht, Service de Chimie, Biochimie Spéciale, Bruxelles, Belgique

Université de Liège, Faculté de Médecine, Département de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Liège, Belgique

5  Université de Liège, Faculté de Médecine – CHU-Liège, Génétique Humaine, Liège, Belgique

6  Université de Liège, Faculté des Sciences Sociales, Laboratoire d’Anthropologie Sociale et Culturelle (LASC), Liège, Belgique

7  Université de Médecine, Faculté de Médecine, Département de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Liège, Belgique

8  Université de Médecine, Faculté de Médecine, Département des Sciences de la Santé publique, Belgique

9  Université de Liège, Faculté de Psychologie, Logopédie et  Sciences de l’Education, Unité de Psychologie de la santé, Liège, Belgique

10 Université de Kinshasa, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Département de Galénique et d’Analyse des Médicaments, Laboratoire PIC, Kinshasa, R.D. Congo

11 Université de Kisangani, Faculté des Sciences Politiques et Administratives, Département de Sociologie et Anthropologie, Kisangani, R.D Congo

12  Université de Kisangani, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Département de Pédiatrie, R.D. Congo

13  Université de Kisangani, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Département des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Kisangani, R.D. Congo

14 Université de Lubumbashi, Faculté de Psychologie et des sciences de l’éducation, Département de Psychologie, Kisangani,  R.D. Congo

15 Ministère Provincial de la Santé – District Sanitaire, Province de la Tshopo, Bureau Information Sanitaire, Recherche Opérationnelle et Communication, R.D. Congo

16  Ministère de la Santé, Partenaire de la Division Provinciale de la Santé Tshopo, Kisangani, R.D. Congo

17  Université de Kisangani, Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences de l’Education, Département de Psychologie Clinique, Kisangani, R.D. Congo

Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hereditary, blood disorder disease characterized by the presence of hemoglobin S (Hb S). It is due to a mutation of the structural gene encoding Hb and whose amino acid glutamic acid has been replaced by valine. The consequence of this mutation is a poor fixation of oxygen by HbS, loss of its solubility and polymerization in the deoxygenated state. HbS then takes a serrated or sickle-like shape that is difficult to move in blood vessels which are then clogged and causing pain, while Hb S is prematurely destroyed causing anemia [1-4].

SCA anemia is the most frequent genetic disease in the world [5; 6] with more than 50 million subjects suffering from severe homozygous form. In sub-Saharan Africa regions, 2% of newborns are affected and 50% of them will not go beyond 5-years in the absence of treatment [7]. Healthy carriers of the gene can represent 10 to 40% of the population [8].

The DRC is the third most affected country after India and Nigeria [9]. This disease is commonly called “maladie ya makila mabé“, “akufa lobi” in the local language, lingala, or “bad blood disease”, “he will die tomorrow” mentioning the stigma of sickle-cell anemia. 2 to 3% of children are born sickle-cell anemia in the DRC and 300 000 babies each year in the world [10]. Kisangani city and its surroundings present high proportion but not always well diagnosed due to insufficiency of facilities and trained medical people [11; 12].

In this context, we drawn and submitted for fund at ARES a project called DREPAKIS that aims to contribute to the improvement of public health and to reduce socio-economic and cultural poverty related to sickle cell anemia in Kisangani. Alarming facts were the particularly high rates of SS – sickle cell homozygotes – but also of heterozygotes AS, lack of future SS homozygous babies with a very short life expectancy, lack of knowledge of sickness both at the community level and among health providers, the difficult or impossible treatment of sickle cell disease, and the exorbitant cost and inaccessibility of effective treatments in developed countries.

The authors present the project proposal specifically that aims to improve the capacities of health professionals, associations and communities in screening, prevention and optimal and targeted management of sickle-cell anemia in the city of Kisangani through its University, based on the following interdisciplinary strategic directions for implementation:

– i) rapid and accessible screening of target individuals to update accurate blood mapping in Kisangani and strengthen disease prevention;

– ii) optimal overall management and optimized treatments based on the quality of “modern” and herbal medicines;

– iii) epidemiological monitoring-surveillance-accompaniment integrating the social, cultural, psychological and public health of the sickness. The ownership of the project will be reinforced by the involvement of local and community associations and training, and its sustainability ensured by 5 trained PhD including specific thematic, North-South and South-South exchanges, a functional laboratory and operating protocols proven. Action strategies will target the normative level (sensitization of national authorities) and the level of support (involvement of provincial authorities) in the health pyramid in D.R. Congo.

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Abstract # 150 

Factors affecting the decision in health medical care seeking behavior among the population in Ruhuha sector in Rwanda

Author(s): Marilyn M. Murindahabi1, Deidre Bosch2, Asingizwe Domina3, ,Emmanuel Hakizimana4,P. Marijn Poortvliet5, Arnold J.H. van Vliet6, Ron Van Lammeren7, Constantianus JM Koenraadt8, Leon Mutesa3.

  1. College of Sciences and Technology, University of Rwanda
  2. Geographic Information Sciences, Wageningen University & Research
  3. College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda
  4. Malaria and Other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Biomedical Center
  5. Strategic Communication, Wageningen University & Research
  6. Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University &Research
  7. Geoinformation Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University &Research
  8. Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University& Research.

 Institution(s) of affiliation: University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, Huye, Rwanda

 Email of the corresponding author: milmamur80@gmail.com

Sub-theme: Non-Communicable and Infectious Disease

Poster presentation

 ABSTRACT

Many factors influence medical health care seeking behavior. Although many factors are similar between populations, how exactly they interact and influence in people ‘s decisions are often unique in the context of environment in which they live. An household survey was conducted in Ruhuha, a rural area experiencing high malaria transmission in the eastern region of Rwanda. A questionnaire was based on demographic and personal information and details regarding response to ill health and health medical care seeking. The data was then analysed to determine which factors affected health care seeking and whether the study participants believed their health needs were being satisfying and met. Medical health care in this case included asking for advice from the local community health workers, visiting a health centre, a health post, or a hospital, buying drugs at a pharmacy, or going to a traditional healer.

In total 139 people that experiencing fever in the last past three months, were interviewed about their decision for medical health seeking. Both men and women, ranging between 20 and 93 years old participated in this study.  The average size of a household was 5.04 people. 119 (85.6 %) were farmers, and 51 (36.7 %) of the households interviewed had no education level, 70 (50,4 %) had primary school.  Only few patients (6.1 %) does not get medical health care when dealing with malaria, and most often this is because of lacking funds for insurance or privately paid health care. More patients who do not have insurance do get health care, but at a pharmacy and acknowledge that this is not preferable. The vast majority of the inhabitants of Ruhuha sector who do get medical health care do so at a health centre or a health post (81.5 %), usually because this is the closest place. Yet patients do not appear to avoid seeking health care because of distance or transport to a medical facility. No significant correlation was found between the distance to a health centre and the amount of patients not seeking health care. According to the household survey approximately 27.3 % of the malaria patients does not seek health care at all, or does not do this at a health centre or health post, so that the malaria records there may have a severe underestimation of the number of malaria patients in the sector.

Our results improved the understanding of malaria in Ruhuha sector. However the spatiotemporal malaria pattern found could not be directly explained by secondary data. On the other hand the patterns found confirm results of other research projects as mentioned earlier.

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Abstract # 151

Evaluation of Sulphur Dioxide content in fermented beverages made in Rwanda

Authors; IYAMARERE Innocent, KAYITARE Michel and RUTABAYIRO MUSEVENI Joseph

University of Rwanda, Huye campus, southern province, Rwanda

iyamarereinnocent@gmail.com, michaelkayitare@gmail.com, musevenijoseph@gmail.com

 Introduction: Sulphur dioxide is widely used in the food and drinks industries for its properties as a preservative and antioxidant. Whilst harmless to healthy persons when used in recommended concentrations, it can induce asthma when inhaled or ingested by sensitive subjects, even in high dilution. To adapt to this issue, some regulations and rules have been established by regulatory agencies on the regulation of these chemicals in food and beverages taken by human being. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sulfur Dioxide in fermented beverages made in Rwanda in order to help both consumers and producers of these beverages. The hypothesis of this study was that Traditional beverages and grape wines produced in Rwanda contain total SO2 content that meets the international standards.

Method: The samples of traditional banana wines (Akarusho and Akiwacu), sorghum beer (Ikigage), Akarusho grape wine, industrial beer (Amstel) and traditional fermented milk (Ikivuguto) were purchased from the retail markets in Rwanda. The evaluation of sulfur dioxide content in these fermented beverages was performed by ripper method using vinmetrica SC-100A instrument.

Result: The results showed that Akarusho grape wine (198 mg/L) followed by Ikivuguto milk (130 mg/L) contained high level of total SO2 compared to the concentration observed in Ikigage (44 mg/l), Akarusho (30mg/L) and Akiwacu (18 mg/L) banana wines and Amstel beer (16mg/L). Therefore, all samples analyzed contained the total SO2 level above of the concentration (10mg/L) accepted in food and beverages by the international standards. However, due to the technological aspects, the maximum permissible concentrations for conventional wines are between 160 – 400 mg / L.

Discussion: According to this aspect, the addition of SO2 during the preparation of banana wine and Ikigage beer can be very interesting to improve the preservation and flavor of these traditional beverages, as the case in Western beers and wines. However, on the public health plan, sulfur dioxide is a threat to sensitive people such as those suffering from asthma as well as other side effects like nausea, diarrhea, gastro-intestinal complications and some neurological effects; reason why sulfite concentration should be indicated on the product labels in order to inform the consumers.

Recommendations: For that, Rwanda Standards Board (RSB) must establish the standards related to the utilization of sulfite in fermented beverages from fruits, cereals and milk. Other research focused on the sensitivity of Rwandan consumers to sulfite is needed.

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